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Ghṛta (Medicated Clarified Butter)

Aśvagandha Ghṛta

Asvagandha ghrta helps to improve physical and mental health. It possesses properties of rasayana (rejuvenator) and is traditionally claimed to enhance the weight of underweight children. It improves strength and internal circulation. Asvagandha ghrta consists of three ingredients viz. Asvagandha (Withania somnifera), cow milk and clarified butter (ghrta) (Mishra 1983). Asvagandha contains withanolides which act as natural steroid compounds (Mishra 2015), whereas cow milk has proteins, vitamins and minerals. Clarified butter has a lipophilic property which favors the transport of active principles of the formulation to the target tissues. Thus Asvagandha in the dosage form of ghrta works better. Asvagandha ghrta has higher nutritional values and produces multidimensional effects in the body. Asvagandha ghrta matra basti (medicated enema) is effective in knee osteoarthritis of the elderly population (Katti et al. 2016). It is also effective in the management of emaciation (karsyata) (Patil et al. 2016; Upadhyay and Komal 2019).

Brahmī Ghṛta

Brahml ghrta contains ingredients like Brahmi (Bacopa monneri), Vaca (Acorns calamus), Sankhapuspi (Evolvulus alsinoides), Kusdha (Saussurea lappa) and clarified butter (Yadav and Reddy 2014). Brahmi ghrta is an important formulation used for the treatment of memory disorders (Yadav et al. 2013). It is found effective in alleviating the symptoms of borderline mental retardation (Kute et al. 2017). Nasal instillation (nasya) of Brahmi ghrta has the potency to prevent neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (Patel 2017a). Brahml ghrta is recommended for the management of unmada (insanity), apasmara (epilepsy) (Manu et al. 2017), papavikara (diseases due to sinful acts) and graha rdga (diseases afflicted by evil spirits) (Yadav and Reddy 2012).

Jātyādi Ghṛta

Jatyadi ghrta is widely used in the treatment of various types of obstinate ulcers (dusta vrana, nadi vrana) (Anonymous 1978c). Jatyadi ghrta picu is effective in fissure-in-ano and hence possesses a very good wound-healing activity (Rao et al. 2016; Swati et al. 2018).

Kalyāṇaka Ghṛta

Kalydnaka ghrta is widely used in the management of a wide array of disorders. In Susruta Samhita, Kalydnaka ghrta is indicated in poisoning (Krishnapriya et al. 2018). The constituent herbs in Kalydnaka ghrta have visaghna (anti-poison), kustaghna (skin disease-curing), hrdya (cardioprotective) and raktasodhaka (blood-purifying) properties. This medicated clarified butter is found to be beneficial in personality disorders, insanity, cough, epilepsy, anemia, itching, consumption, delusion, diabetes mellitus, fever, infertility, poor intelligence, stammering speech and poor digestive power. It bestows strength, auspiciousness, long life, a good complexion and nourishment. However, it is more widely used in the management of psychiatric conditions (Sori et al. 2017; Sinimol 2019). It is also effective in schizophrenia (Gupta and Mamidi 2016b) and anovulation (Jain et al. 2016). Kalydnaka ghrta nasya is effective in alcoholism (madatyaya) (Dhimdhime et al. 2016).

Mahātiktaka Ghṛta

Mahatiktaka ghrta is indicated in unmada (insanity), ёка kusdha (psoriasis) (Kavyashree et al. 2017), menorrhagia (Vijay Lakshmi 2017), vitiligo (Khandekar et al. 2015), peptic ulcer, bleeding disorders, bleeding piles, herpes, gastritis, gout, anemia, blisters, schizophrenia, jaundice, fever and heart diseases (Reddy and Snehal 2017). It is also used for external application in non-healing wounds. This ghrta is used for the purpose of oleation (snehakarma) which is recommended before performing vamana (emesis) and viricana (purgation) treatments (Anonymous 1978c).

Nārasimha Rasāyana

Ndrasimha rasayana is prescribed for the treatment of fatigue, hair loss, loss of vitality and emaciation in young men and w'omen. This formulation also aids in improving fertility by acting as an aphrodisiac. It is said to be of use in reversing aging, improving immune function, and increasing sexual vigor and potency (Anonymous 1978c). Feeding mice with 50 mg/kg body weight of Ndrasimha rasayana consecutively for 5 days prior to, and for a month after, radiation, arrested the radiation- induced deleterious effects. Treatment with Ndrasimha rasayana increased the body weight and the organ weights of the recipient mice. It also decreased the levels of radiotoxic biochemical endpoints and the levels of serum and tissue lipid peroxides, serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (Vayalil 2002).

The use of ionizing radiation compromises the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A compound that can provide a selective benefit to normal cells against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation has been a long-sought goal. Nevertheless, most of the compounds investigated have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side-effects and prohibitive cost. Ayurvedic rasayana like Ndrasimha rasayana possesses radioprotective effects. Therefore, Ndrasimha rasayana is useful in improving the overall health of cancer patients (Baliga et al. 2013).

Phala Sarpis

Phala sarpis is one of the well-known medicines for successful conception, maintenance of pregnancy and is ideal for curing all disorders of the female genital tract (Otta and Tripaty 2002; Biala and Tiwari 2015; Oberoi et al. 2016). It is a valuable medicine known to be used in infertility for thousands of years. It is tonic, nourishing and rejuvenating (Parmaret al. 2017). Uttaravasti (enema) with Phala sarpis is highly effective in increasing the ovarian reserve and is a better alternative to hormonal therapy (Parmar et al. 2017). The fertility-promoting effect of Phala sarpis was studied in female albino rats with body weight, ovarian weight and ovarian estradiol as parameters. Phala sarpis proved to be successful in anovulatory infertility (Muralikumar and Shivasekar 2012). It is also effective in menorrhagia (Vanishree and Ramesh 2018) and cystocele (Gupta and Siddesh 2018).

Sukumāra Ghṛta

Sukumara ghrta is one of the medicinal clarified butters mentioned in Sahasra Yoga and Ayurvedic Formulary of India (Anonymous 1978c). Sukumara ghrta is an example of the dosage form yarnaka or a combination of two fatty substances - clarified butter and castor oil - as ingredients. Sukumara ghrta is indicated in constipation, diseases of the abdomen/enlargement of the abdomen, abdominal lumps, splenic disease, abscess, edema, pain in the female genital tract, hemorrhoids, hydrocele, diseases due to vdta dosa and gout. It is also used in the oleation therapy, prior to pahcakarma (Vaidyan and Pillai 1985a). Sukumara ghrta facilitates parturition because of good cervical ripening and decreased labor pain, as well as shortening of the duration of the first stage of labor (Jadhav et al. 2014). Yoni pica (a sterile medicated cotton swab kept inside the vagina for a specific period of time) with Sukumara ghrta improved the tonicity of perineal muscles (Surendran et al. 2018).

Tṛphalā Ghṛta

Tvphala ghrta is described by Acarya Vagbhta in the management of myopia (Dabhi et al. 2016). Triphala ghrta, which is generally used for tarpana (eye bath), is saturated with a decoction of the triphala group of drugs (Emblica officinalis, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula), and hence it contains both lipid and water-soluble constituents of triphala. Thus, it has lipophilic as well as hydrophilic properties. Therefore, it penetrates well through various layers of the cornea. In this way it is effective in computer vision syndrome and Stargardt’s macular degeneration (Mohan 2013; Sawant et al. 2013; Sreekumar and Nair 2017).

Vidāryādi Ghṛta

Vidaryddi ghrta acts as an effective nutritional remedy to overcome problems faced by adults suffering from malnutrition (Arun and Shivakumar 2016). It is also effective in the management of Graves’ disease (Rao et al. 2018) and vataja pratisyaya (rhinitis) (Thakur and Jagtap 2016).

Guṭika (Pills)

Bilvādi Guṭika

Bilvddi gutika is widely used in the treatment of poisoning, especially in acute toxic pathological conditions. The first reference to this formulation is in Astdhgahrdaya, uttarasthana, 36th chapter, where it is mentioned as Bilvddi yoga (a combination of bilvddi herbs). In The Ayurvedic Formulary of India it is named as Bilvddi gutika and the same name is used in commerce (Anonymous 1978d; Shubha et al. 2017). Bilvddi gutika is a proven drug of choice in conditions like cholera and cobra bites (Sunitha and Hussain 2018a).

Chandraprabhā Vaṭi

Chandraprabha vati is often recommended for having a young-looking, wrinkle-free and glowing skin and for treating several diseases such as those of skin, urinary system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, eye, teeth, diabetes, anemia (Doddamani et al. 2015), obesity and reproductive system. Besides, it is also claimed to possess pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties (Weerasekera et al. 2014). It successfully prevents diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy and may prevent essential hypertension (Sushama and Nishteswar 2012).

Dhānvantaram Guṭika

Dhanvantaram gutika is used during pregnancy care to safeguard pregnancy. This formula is a contribution of the Kerala Ayurveda practice. It is an anti-inflammatory medicine, used to relieve arthritic pain. It is effective in fever, cough, wheezing, loss of appetite and uterine fibroids (Saroch and Singh 2015).

Kaiśōra Guggulu

Kaisora guggulu is one of the most famous ayurvedic formulations that is used traditionally to support healthy joints, muscles and connective tissue. It is known to have analgesic, anti-allergic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities (Vaidyan and Pillai 1985b). Traditionally it is used for skin diseases and gout (Kurup 2001; Sinha et al. 2008). It is good for aggravated fibromyalgia patients suffering from muscle pain (Lather et al. 2011; Gupta et al. 2014). It acts as a skin health promoter, natural blood cleanser and supportive dietary herbal supplement in many conditions such as diabetes and skin diseases.

Kāñcanāra Guggulu

Kancanara guggulu has anti-inflammatory and cyst-dissolving properties (Banothe et al. 2018). Because of these qualities, Kancanara guggulu may check the changes in prostatic tissues and regulate urinary function (Han et al. 2007). This formulation is in clinical use for many centuries in the treatment of gandamala (cervical lymphadenopathy), arbuda (tumor), granthi (cyst) and kusdha (skin disease) (Dhiman 2014). Kancanara guggulu supports the proper function of the lymphatic system, promotes the elimination of inflammatory toxins and is administered in malignant ulcers, syphilis, fistula, scrofula, sinus and benign prostatic hyperplasia (mutraghata) (Patel et al. 2015a).

Mānasamitra Vaṭaka

Manasamitra vataka is a medicine that improves memory and intellect and combats speech problems in children. This medicine contains 73 ingredients and is used in the dosage of one tablet per day (Anonymous 1978d). Manasamitra vataka is reported to improve memory and intellect and cure cognitive deficits (Thirunavukkarasu et al. 2012; Sanjaya Kumar et al. 2016).

Tubaki et al. (2003) explored its efficacy in patients with a generalized anxiety disorder (G.A.D.) with comorbid generalized social phobia. Seventy-two patients with G.A.D. with comorbid social phobia were randomly divided into three treatment groups. Groups 1 and 2 received Manasamitra vataka (100 mg twice daily for 30 days). Group 2, in addition to Manasamitra vataka, was treated with Sirodhdra (therapy involving dripping of medicated oil over the forehead) for the first seven days. Group 3 received clonazepam 0.75 mg daily in divided dose for 30 days. The study was assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (E.S.S.), World Health Organization Quality of Life B.R.E.F., and Clinical Global Impression Scales (improvement and efficacy). Patients of all the groups showed a significant reduction in clinical parameters. Nevertheless, improvement in E.S.S. was observed only in Group 2. The treatment outcome was comparable between the three groups. This is the first study conducted on the efficacy of Manasamitra vataka in anxiety disorders, and the results indicate that Manasamitra vataka is effective in the management of G.A.D. with comorbid generalized social phobia.

 
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