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Taila (Medicated Oils)

Aṇu Taila

Ann taila is prescribed for nasal instillation (nasya karma) in various disease conditions. Anu taila can provide better result in sneezing (ksavathu), nasal obstruction (nasavarodha), watery nasal discharge (tanusrava), retracted tympanic membrane, anosmia (gandhahani), itching (kandu) and turbinate hypertrophy (Verma 2013). Nasal instillation of Anu taila is also reported to cure torticollis

(manya stambha), headache (sirahsfila), facial paralysis (ardita), lock-jaw (,hanusamgraha), migraine (ardhavabhidaka) and chronic sinusitis (dusta pratisyaya) (Thanki et al. 2009; Bhardwaj 2012; Patil and Sawant 2012; Naveen and Kumar 2014; Dave et al. 2016; Jitesh and Amit 2016; Sharma and Soni 2017).

Balā Taila

Bald taila is suitable for mother and child healthcare (Sharma et al. 2017). Thus, the local application of Bald taila as an oil-soaked swab (picu) and enema (vasti) is a treatment of choice in diseases like uterine prolapse, abnormal uterine bleeding, cervicitis, vaginitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, urethral stricture and Lou Gehrig’s disease (Patel 2017b; Patel 2018). Bald taila is the best-medicated oil for body massage of infants. Bald taila increases the strength and nutrition of tissues, thus improving the growth of the infant (Agarwal et al. 2000). Massage in infancy is helpful to prevent hypothermia and induce post-massage sleep (Raskar and Rajagopala 2015). Moderate massage pressure contributes many positive effects, including increased weight gain in pre-term infants, enhanced attentiveness, increased vagal activity, decreased cortisol levels and enhanced immune function (Butali and Arbar 2014). It also increases the strength and nutrition of tissues and is helpful in preventing hypothermia (Thakur and Baba 2017). Enema (mdtrd vasti) with Bald taila is found to be effective in curing the inability to climb stairs in patients of osteoarthritis (Anurag et al. 2015). Bald taila application is effective on traumatic wounds, by reducing pain, minimizing the wound surface, reducing discharge, promoting epithelialization and granulation, and also avoiding hypertrophic scar formation (Tripathy et al. 2011). Massage (abhyanga) with Bald taila is found to be effective in the management of cerebral palsy (Ghuse et al. 2016).

Gandharvahastādi Ēraṇḍa Taila

Gandharvahastadi eranda taila is known to clear the micro-channels in specific areas, facilitating proper healing and restoring physiological function (Sunil Kumar et al. 2017). Therapeutic purgation with Gandharvahastadi iranda taila is effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (amavata) (Sharma et al. 2015), Meniere’s disease (Rani and Madhusudan 2019), lumbar stenosis (Ratha et al. 2016), lower backache (Raghunathan et al. 2015) and sciatica (Rao et al. 2017).

Irimēdādi Taila

Irimidddi taila is useful in dental problems such as stomatitis, dental caries, gingivitis, stained teeth and hyperemia of gums (Amruthesh 2008; Bolooret al. 2014; Ahlawat and Sarswat 2018; Fida et al. 2018; Patil et al. 2018; Ankita 2019). A clinical study found Irimidddi taila to be equally effective as chlorhexidine, as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control in the prevention of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. The authors concluded that Irimidddi taila could be an effective and safe alternative to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, due to its prophylactic and therapeutic benefits (Mali et al. 2016).

Kṣīrabalā Taila

KsTrabald taila is prepared by boiling together cow milk, the paste of Si da rhombifolia root, the decoction of Si da rhombifolia root and sesame oil (Anonymous 1978g). It has rejuvenation properties and is used both topically and systemically. It is indicated in all disorders of central nervous system, facial paralysis, sciatica, hemiplegia, paraplegia, poliomyelitis and Parkinson’s disease (Grampurohit et al. 2014; Nair et al. 2015; Kamble et al. 2017). Therapeutic enema with KsTrabald taila is found to be efficacious in the whole symptom complex of painful menstruation. It also helps to prevent recurrence of dysmenorrhea (Lakshmi and Asokan 2017), cerebral palsy in children (Adinath et al. 2016) and lower backache (Tripathy et al. 2016; Singh and Satpute 2018).

Mahānārāyaṇa Taila

Mahanarayana taila is a rich combination of anti-arthritic ayurvedic herbs that produce no irritation on the skin and arrest further progress of chronic arthritic changes of joints, pain, stiffness, restricted movement and distortion. It restores normal joint function. It has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-arthritic activities (Pawar et al. 2011; Tiwari 2015) and hence is suitable for fissure- in-ano to relieve sphincter spasm along with other symptoms, without adverse effects (Peshala et al. 2014), and in the management of sciatica (grdhrasi) (Goswami 2014), osteoarthritis and Parkinson’s disease (Srivastava et al. 2015).

Mahāmāṣa Taila

Mahamasa taila contains ingredients like Phaseolus mango (mdsa), dasamUla group of drugs) and so on. It pacifies vdta dosa and gives strength to eyes through errhine therapy (nasya) (Renu et al. 2014). Nasya with Mahamasa taila irritates the nasal mucosa, leading to an edematous response with local hyperemia, which enhances drug absorption. Since the drug administered is itself lipid in nature, there is no functional blood-brain barrier for Mahamasa taila. During nasya procedure, lowering of the head and fomentation to face seems to have an impact on blood circulation to the head. The efferent vasodilator nerves which are located on the superficial surface of the face are stimulated by application of the medicinal oil and fomentation, leading to momentary hyperemia in the head region (Gupta 2017). It is effective in the management of frozen shoulder and cerebral palsy (Bagali and Prashanth 2016).

Conclusion

Ayurvedic medicines are designed on the basis of parameters like rasa (taste), guna (qualities), vTrya (potency), vipdka (post-digestive taste) and prabhdva (specific action) (Upadhyay 1975d). These medicines are generally prepared using herbal ingredients. When viewed through the perspective of Western medicine, the biological actions of these medicines are brought about by the numerous organic compounds belonging to classes like glycosides, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, lactones and so on (Hoffmann 2003).

Studies are required to demonstrate the therapeutic utility of ayurvedic medicines. Some recent studies on AmalakT rasayana and Rasa sindaram in a Drosophila model suggest that the effects of these formulations on fruit flies are similar to those described in classical Ayurveda (Dwivedi et al.

2012). Interestingly, both these formulations enhanced the levels of different h.n.R.N.P.s (heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins), which are involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and of CBP300, a histone acetyl transferase essential for modifying chromatin for elevated gene expression (Dwivedi et al. 2012). AmalakT rasayana and Rasa sinduram suppressed induced apoptosis (Dwivedi et al. 2015). Amalaki rasayana enhanced tolerance of flies to oxidative stress, which may contribute to the increased life span attributed to Amalaki rasayana therapy (Dwivedi and Lakhotia 2016).

The upsurge in the popularity of Ayurveda calls for stringent quality control of ayurvedic formulations. As the majority of ayurvedic formulations are complex mixtures of various herbal ingredients, their quality control through physico-chemical parameters may not be feasible, except in a few simpler formulations (Shengule et al. 2019). Biological quality control of ayurvedic medicines, using model organisms needs to be defined (Lakhotia 2019). Thus R.&D. and quality control of ayurvedic medicines are essential to take Ayurveda through the new millennium.

 
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