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Arguing, Reasoning, and Thinking Well

: Why Study Argument?“Kiddie” ArgumentsArguing as a Developmental ProcessThe Importance of Context and CultureAdult ArguersAims and Goals of This BookWhy Learn About Argumentation?Argumentative OverturesSummaryNotesReferences: Arguing EthicallyThe MeltdownArgument Is Not a Dirty WordArguing (In)Competently: Traits and Behaviors of Effective and Ineffective ArguersGoals: Winning Isn’t the Only ThingFinal Thoughts: You’ve Got the PowerSummaryReferences: Argument Theories, Models, and DefinitionsConceptualizing Argument: What Is an Argument Anyway?Theories and Models of ArgumentStrengths and Limitations of the Toulmin ModelSummaryNotesReferences: The Nature of Critical ThinkingDumb and DumbererIgnorance Versus Stupidity: No Duh!What Is and Isn’t Critical Thinking?Conceptualizing Critical ThinkingFrom Tweeters to Twits? Is Technology Making Us Stupid?Technology May Be Making Us SmarterSummaryReferences: Building Blocks of ArgumentDon’t Build Your Arguments Out of StrawClaim Spotting: What’s Your Point?Types of Claims: Different Claims for Different AimsConfusing ClaimsProof: The Grounds for ArgumentsHave You Got a Warrant?All-Purpose WarrantsSummaryAnswers to Types of Claims from Box 5.1References: Evidence and ProofWhere’s Your Proof?Prove It to MeField Dependent and Field Invariant ProofTests of EvidenceStatistical ProofSummaryNotesReferences: Informal ReasoningOrdinary, Everyday ReasoningInductive Reasoning Defined: Take a LeapCausal Reasoning: But Why?Reasoning by Analogy: Life Is Like a Box of ChocolatesSign Reasoning: If It Walks Like a Duck, and Talks Like a Duck . . .Generalization: White Men Can’t JumpExample: Gimme a For InstanceSummaryNotesReferences: Fallacies in Reasoning, Part 1: The “Big Five”When Good Arguments Go BadFriends or Foes? A Pragmatic Approach to FallaciesThe Usual Suspects: The Big FiveSummaryNotesReferences: .Fallacies in Reasoning, Part 2Iffy Assumptions: Fallacies Involving Questionable PremisesDiversionary Tactics: Verbal Sleight of HandAppeals to Emotion: You’re Not Using Your HeadFallacies of Presumption: Shifting the Burden of ProofFallacies Involving Ambiguity: It’s Not Cheating if You Don’t RememberSummaryNotesReferencesFurther Reading on Fallacies in Reasoning: Judgment, Decision Making, and Problem SolvingA Curious Rule of Thumb (. . . and Fingers)Multiple ChoicesRational Models of Decision Making: Tapping into Your Inner Math GeekHeuristics and Biases: Decision-Making SnagsA Procedural Approach to Problem Solving and Decision Making: Baby StepsDecision Making in Groups: Are Two (or More) Heads Better Than One?SummaryNotesReferences: Deductive ReasoningDeductive Versus Inductive Reasoning: A Whole Different AnimalWhat Is Formal Logic?Are People Naturally Logical?Cognitive Fitness: Don Your Thinking CapDeduction in Everyday Life: It’s What the Cool Kids Are DoingDeduction in Specific Fields and Contexts: Putting Logic to WorkValidity and InvaliditySyllogistic Reasoning: It’s Only LogicalSummaryNotesReferences: Effective Advocacy and RefutationSorry to Burden You: Argumentative Obligations and ResponsibilitiesPrima Facie Case: The Opening SalvoBurden of Rebuttal: Get Ready to RumbleArguing about ArguingCase Building: On Solid GroundInvention: Discovering the IssuesStock Issues: Touching All the BasesValue Claims: The Good, the Bad, and the UglyFactual Claims: Just the Facts, Ma’amDefinitional Claims: War of WordsSummary and ConclusionReferencesAppendix: Sample Debate Formats for In-Class DebatesSimple Pro–Con Format (For Many Speakers)Oxford Style (Four-Person) DebateLincoln–Douglas (One-on-One) DebateAuthor IndexSubject Index

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