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Life Cycle Management

I Introducing Life Cycle ManagementThe Business ContextThe Role of Life Cycle ManagementConclusions and PerspectivesReferencesLife Cycle Management: Implementing Sustainability in Business PracticeLife Cycle Management and Life Cycle Sustainability Management: A Clarification of TermsLife Cycle Management: Concepts and DefinitionSystems and Tools for Life Cycle ManagementOrganizational ChallengesConclusion and OutlookReferencesLife Cycle Management as a Way to Operationalize Sustainability Within OrganizationsIntroductionValue Creation and Life Cycle ManagementDefining the Strategy of Sustainable Value CreationSustainability Value Creation FrameworkPaths to Operationalize Sustainability Through Life Cycle Management in a Company: Illustrated ApplicationsSustainability as a Motivation GeneratorSustainable Supply Chain to Reduce RisksSustainability to Increase Brand PerceptionConclusions and OutlookReferencesHow to Implement Life Cycle Management in Business?IntroductionImplementation of Life Cycle Sustainability ManagementPlanDoCheckActConcluding RemarksReferencesLife Cycle Sustainability Assessment: A Tool for Exercising Due Diligence in Life Cycle ManagementIntroductionTaking Up Social Responsibility in the Value ChainAbout Social Responsibility of OrganizationsLinking with ManagementAbout “Due Diligence”Due Diligence: Assessment Through LCSA?Implementation and Follow Up of Due Diligence Through LCM?OutlookReferencesLife Cycle Management: Labelling, Declarations and Certifications at the Product Level – Different ApproachesIntroductionOverview on Different ApproachesSome Exemplary Information Transmission ApproachesQualitative ApproachesSelf-Declared Environmental ClaimsQuantitative DeclarationsSelection of ApproachesConclusionsReferencesMainstreaming the Use of Life Cycle Management in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Using a Sector Based and Regional ApproachIntroductionContext for the StudyApproachBenchmarkSector Maturity AssessmentNeeds IdentificationAction PlanImplementationConclusions and OutlookReferencesII Advancing the Implementation of Life Cycle Management in Business PracticeFrom Projects to Processes to Implement Life Cycle Management in BusinessA Brief History of Life Cycle ApproachesFrom Pioneers to Industry StandardsFrom Trial to MaturityFrom Project to ProcessScreening to Identify PathwayScoping to Grow Project PhaseScaling to Prepare Process PhaseFrom Process Integration to Sustainable Supply Chain and Product ManagementReferencesHow to Make the Life Cycle Assessment Team a Business PartnerIntroduction: 20 Years of Life Cycle Assessment, Have We Understood the User Needs?Understanding Major Product Sustainability TrendsUnderstanding “Alternatives” to Life Cycle AssessmentThe Risk of Ignoring These TrendsUnderstanding the LCA Community ItselfThe Overarching MessageWhat's Next: How to Tackle This Chasm?Become a Champion for Life Cycle AssessmentLong-Term Management Commitment to SustainabilityShared LanguageLink Life Cycle Assessment with Business ObjectivesJointly Explore New ApplicationsConclusionsReferencesSustainability Improvements and Life Cycle Approaches in Industry PartnershipsIntroductionIndustry and Associations InitiativesTogether for Sustainability (TfS)Life Cycle Inventory Data Platforms of AssociationsSteering Product Portfolio to Foster Sustainable SolutionsExamples of Assessments and ApplicationsUsing Plastics Europe LCI InformationEvaluating Product Sustainability, a Contribution from CEFICSustainability Improvements Support with Eco-Efficiency Studies: Pavement Preservation TechnologyConclusionsReferencesSustainable Value Creation with Life Cycle ManagementIntroduction and ObjectiveBackground and Literature ReviewContext of Corporations and ProductsOpportunities for Sustainable Value CreationBusiness Functions/ActivitiesMethodologyDescription of Sustainable Value Framework for Chemical IndustryResults and DiscussionCase Study of Spun-Dyed Modal Fibers from Lenzing AGCase Study of Vitamin C Business Development by Royal DSM NVImplementation Procedure for Business Value Creation Based on Life Cycle Assessment in CompaniesLimitations of the Suggested Approach and Life Cycle ManagementConclusionsReferencesIII Life Cycle Management as Part of Sustainable Consumption and Production Strategies and PoliciesHotspots Analysis: Providing the Focus for ActionIntroductionWhat Is Hotspots Analysis?Typical Steps to Conduct Hotspots AnalysisApproaches of Hotspots AnalysisApplications/Use of Hotspots AnalysisScale of ApplicationAttributesCommonalities and Differences Among MethodologiesCase StudiesOther Tools Used to Identify Sustainability ImpactsHotspots Analysis Versus Other ToolsKey ObservationsAudience and ApplicationBeyond LCACommonalitiesEase of UseGapsChallenges and Next StepsReferencesFrom Sustainable Production to Sustainable ConsumptionIntroductionSecondary Consequences of Consumption DecisionsOverviewChanges in Available Household Resources and Consumption ConstraintsUse of Freed Household ResourcesCross Category EffectsMental Secondary ConsequencesHigher Order Consequences of Economic TransactionsTowards a New Measure of the Environmental Life Cycle Performance of Products from Consumption PerspectiveHappiness or Harm Due to Need (Over-) FulfilmentSustainable Consumption on Different LevelsProduct Level: From Functional Unit to Needs FulfilmentPerson or Household Level: Sustainable LifestylesNational Level: From Territorial Inventory to Including Burdens of Imported and Exported ProductsGlobal Level: The Sum of All Consumption Versus the Planetary BoundariesActors in Sustainable Consumption and Their Possible RolesCompanies: Sustainable ProductsCitizen: Sustainable Consumption Decisions and LifestylesGovernments: Facilitating Sustainable Consumption and LifestylesOthersConclusions and Next StepsReferencesLife Cycle Management Responsibilities and Procedures in the Value ChainIntroductionLooking into the Life Cycle Management AgendaCorporate Practice in Life Cycle ManagementCollective Model for Life Cycle ManagementLife Cycle Management and Business OrganizationsLife Cycle Management in Regional DevelopmentLink with Other Sustainability Management InitiativesSummary and ConclusionsReferencesPolicy Options for Life Cycle Assessment Deployment in LegislationIntroductionMethodologyIdentification of Policy OptionsIdentification and Description of Characteristics of the Policy OptionsResults and DiscussionDeveloped Policy OptionsCharacteristics of the Prioritized Policy OptionsConclusions and OutlookReferencesIV Mainstreaming and Capacity Building on Life Cycle ManagementTaking Life Cycle Management Mainstream: Integration in Corporate Finance and AccountingEvolution in Assessment, Management and Reporting StandardsLinking Life Cycle Assessment with Financial Value DriversGrowth of SalesDuration of SalesOperating Margin and Capital ExpenditureConclusionReferencesBuilding Organizational Capability for Life Cycle ManagementIntroductionOutlineMethodsDevelopment of the Life Cycle Management Capability Maturity ModelCompany Case StudiesDiscussionConclusions and Research NeedsReferencesPromoting Life Cycle Thinking, Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Management Within Business in BrazilIntroductionBrazilian Business Network for Life Cycle AssessmentImplementing Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Management Within CompaniesConclusionsReferencesMainstreaming Life Cycle Sustainability Management in Rapidly Growing and Emerging Economies Through Capacity-BuildingIntroductionPotential for Mainstreaming Life Cycle Sustainability Management in Developing Countries: A Global Status AssessmentMethodology and Criteria for the Assessment of Mainstreaming ConditionsCapacity-Building for Life Cycle Sustainability ManagementLCA Studies and LCA DatabasesNetworkingGender AspectsMainstreaming Conditions in Selected CountriesMarket for LCA ProfessionalsFramework for Capacity-Building and Developing Capabilities to Mainstream Life Cycle Sustainability ManagementConclusions, Recommendations and OutlookConclusions and RecommendationsOutlookReferencesCommunication and Collaboration as Essential Elements for Mainstreaming Life Cycle ManagementIntroductionMissing LinksBox 20.1: A Practical Example: Renault's Efforts to Inform Their Consumers About Their Life Cycle Management WorkMoving Towards Better CollaborationImprove Collaboration Among the Life Cycle Community Across the GlobeEffective Communication with a Wider Set of StakeholdersAudiences and Lessons LearnedMaking It HappenSpace to Coordinate Efforts Around the WorldSpace to Identify New Contacts, Apart from ConferencesSpace to Collaborate with ColleaguesSpace to Develop a Coherent MessagingConclusionReferencesV Implementation and Case Studies of Life Cycle Management in Different Business and Industry SectorsExploring Challenges and Opportunities of Life Cycle Management in the Electricity SectorIntroductionIdentifying the Issues: Major Methodological ChallengesData Issues: Generating Electricity Life Cycle Inventory DatasetsUser Perspective: Using Electricity Life Cycle Inventory DataKey OpportunitiesOpportunities: The Research PerspectiveOpportunities: The User PerspectiveConclusionsReferencesLife Cycle Management Applied to Urban Fabric PlanningIntroductionMethodsEnvironmental BenchmarkingThe Urban FabricEnvironmental Profile of Urban Fabric ElementsPaved Skin: Sidewalks and Light-Weight Traffic Road PavementGas NetworkWater Supply NetworkSewer NetworkDiscussionOptimizing the Urban Fabric DesignTowards Smart Grids and Self-sufficiencyConclusionsReferencesImplementing Life Cycle Engineering in Automotive Development as a Helpful Management Tool to Support Design for EnvironmentIntroductionLife Cycle Management at VolkswagenLife Cycle Assessment as a Tool to Implement Life Cycle Management at VolkswagenFrom Life Cycle Assessment to Life Cycle EngineeringSuccess Factors for Life Cycle Engineering Within the CompanyIntegration of Life Cycle Engineering into Company ProcessesAutomotive Life CycleLightweight DesignExample: Hot Stamped SteelAnalysis and Derivation of Measurable Technical TargetsCalculating Targets for Hot Stamped SteelConclusionReferencesManaging Life Cycle Sustainability Aspects in the Automotive IndustryIntroductionAssessing Sustainability Performance Within a Vehicle Life CycleLife Cycle Assessment of a CarSocial and Economic PerformancesResults and DiscussionReferencesLife Cycle Management as a Way to Operationalize the Creating Shared Value Concept in the Food and Beverage Industry: A Case StudyIntroductionImplementing EcodEX: A Product Design Tool at NestléInitial BriefA Growing Number of UsersChallengesConclusionReferences