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China’s Sustainable Use of Natural Resources -

AcknowledgmentsOverall evaluation of China’s use of resources‘Improving the efficiency with which resources are used’ is a concept that should be woven into all parts of the ‘full life cycle’ of resourcesThe Chinese government must come to grips with the key factors that enable sustainable use of resourcesNotesResource use in China: the current situation and impending challengesChina’s overall endowment of resources and its development and use of resourcesExploitation and use of land resourcesExploitation and use of water resourcesExploitation and use of mineral resourcesDevelopment and use of energy resourcesExploitation and use of other resourcesChina’s use of natural resources from the perspective of the flow of materialsChina’s flow of materials: an overviewStructural changes in China’s material flowsDomestic processed outputEfficiency of resource useFactors that affect the consumption of resources and the discharge of pollutants in ChinaThe potential for China to realize sustainable use of natural resources and the opportunities aheadEconomies of scale and economies of scope in the use of resourcesRapid technological progressGlobal resource allocationRapid transformation of economic and social structuresSocial demands for a belter ecological environment are on the riseChina’s unique socialist market-economy structureNotesThe sustainable use of natural resources from a ‘full-life-cycle’ perspectiveThe entire life cycle of resource useIntegrated use of resourcesMultiple resources from the same process: using by-productsThe multiple functions and uses of resourcesMultiple kinds of outputComposite useThe repair and maintenance of productsAccumulation of assets in the private and public sectorsDevelopment of public infrastructureAutomobiles and durable consumer goodsRemanufacturingRecycling: the retrieval and reuse of resourcesThe discharge of wasteThe current status of resource retrieval and reuse in ChinaMain problems relating to China’s retrieval and reuse of resourcesThe potential for resource retrieval and reuseNotesThe key areas involved in the strategy to ensure sustainable use of natural resourcesPromoting advances and innovations in science and technologyCreating favorable institutional conditions for the resource revolutionImprove the efficiency of the national systems that relate to innovationStrengthen global cooperation in technological innovationCarrying out the strategy for a ‘new form of urbanization ’ that is both intensive and resource-efficientConcepts behind urbanization and the sustainable use of resourcesResource constraints that limit the development of cities and lead to ‘sick-city syndromes'Resource safeguards that enable the sustainable growth of citiesAdhere to ‘green growth’ and build an ecologically oriented civilizationUse of resources must not lead to a deteriorating ecological environmentEnvironmental protection and the sustainable use of resourcesPromote a transformation in lifestyleQuality of life, lifestyles, and resource consumptionEncouraging people to live modern, sustainable lifestylesNotesChina’s policies and institutional systems with respect to resources and the environmentReforms aimed at market-oriented allocation of resourcesResource allocation prior to Reform and Opening UpMarket-oriented reform of the allocation of resources after the start of Reform and Opening lipReforms to grant greater authority over decision makingReform of corporate systemsMore systematic reforms to achieve market-driven resource allocationThe policy environment and administrative systems that apply to resources and the environmentThe administrative system that pertains to resources and the environmentLaws and regulations relating to resources and the environmentPolicy toolsPublic finance policiesPolicies relating to tax revenues and feesFinancing policiesDiversified forms of resource and environmental governanceInternational structures and agreements relating to resources and the environmentNotesEconomic globalization and the sustainable use of resourcesGlobal allocation of resourcesGlobal allocation of resources improves the efficiency with which resources are usedChina is actively participating in the global allocation of resourcesCoping with various controversies in appropriate waysGlobal governance of resourcesMoving from ‘modernization of the minority’to ‘modernization of the majority’The new challenges that global resources and the environment are facingIncrease in other risks to ecological environmentsChallenges relating to the global governance of resources and reformsChina’s participation in global resource governanceNotesPolicy recommendations with regard to the sustainable use of resourcesConfirm the strategic position of ‘the sustainable use of resources’ in China’s policy framework and set specific control targets toward achieving that endImprove the mechanisms, standards, regulatory supervision, and governance systems that are designed to support the sustainable use of resourcesBuild up green industries and a green economy by adopting a full-life-cycle approachPromote technological and business model innovations in the sphere of natural resourcesCoordinate the domestic and international spheres from a top-down perspective in a way that incorporates China’s ‘two main realms’ (urban and rural) and its ‘two large markets’ (domestic and international)Broadly promote green concepts and sharing models that are in accordance with an ecologically oriented civilizationAppendices

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