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Estimation results from the life satisfaction equation

The predicted probabilities for low and high life satisfaction are shown in Tables 2.3 and 2.4 for, respectively, India and South Africa. There was no significant difference between persons from the FCs and non-FCs in their PPs of low satisfaction, but the PP of high satisfaction was significantly higher for persons from the FCs than from the non-FCs (Table 2.3: 35.1% versus 31.5%). The results for South Africa were exactly the opposite: while there was no significant difference between Whites and non-Whites in their PPs of high satisfaction, the predicted probability of low satisfaction was significantly lower for Whites than for non-Whites (Table 2.4: 34.8% vs. 44.4%).

Social contacts, through the importance attached to friends, affected happiness in both countries (as was shown in Table 2.2), but in neither country

Predicted Probability of Low Satisfaction

Predicted Probability of High Satisfaction

Probability

Marginal

Probability

Standard

Error

z - Value

Probability

Marginal

Probability

Standard z Error

- Value

Social Group

Forward Castes [R]

0.373

0.351

Non-Forward Castes

0.385

0.012

0.016

0.8

0.315

-0.036**

0.016

-2.3

Gender

Male [RJ

0.391

0.319

Female

0.369

-0.022

0.016

-1.4

0.330

0.011

0.016

0.7

Friends

Not Very/At All Important [R]

0.387

0.318

Rather Important

0.392

0.004

0.018

0.2

0.304

-0.014

0.018

-0.8

Very Important

0.372

-0.015

0.018

-0.9

0.342

0.024

0.018

1.3

Religion

Not Very/At All Important [R]

0.412

0.282

Rather Important

0.389

-0.023

0.020

-1.1

0.282

0.000

0.019

0.0

Very Important

0.371

-0.041**

0.018

-2.2

0.351

0.069**

0.018

3.9

Health (self-assessed)

Good/Very Good [ RJ

0.293

0.466

Fair

0.377

0.084**

0.015

5.7

0.295

-0.172**

0.015

11.2

Poor

0.461

0.168**

0.017

9.9

0.246

-0.221**

0.017

13.1

Age

15-30 Years [R]

0.399

0.303

Predicted Probability of Low Satisfaction

Predicted Probability of High Satisfaction

Probability

Marginal

Probability

Standard

Error

z - Value

Probability

Marginal

Probability

Standard

Error

z - Value

30-45 Years

0.389

-0.010

0.016

-0.6

0.322

0.019

0.015

1.3

45-60 Years

0.360

-0.039”

0.020

-2.0

0.346

0.043”

0.019

2.2

60+ Years

0.319

-0.080”

0.026

-3.0

0.380

0.077”

0.028

2.7

Marital Status

Married/I.iving Together

0.374

-0.049 я'

0.028

-1.8

0.325

0.002

0.028

0.1

Divorced/Separated/Widowed

0.479

0.055

0.045

1.2

0.272

-0.051

0.044

-1.2

Single Never Married [R]

0.424

0.323

Number of Children

None[R|

0.359

0.337

1-2

0.390

0.031

0.024

1.3

0.318

-0.019

0.025

-0.8

3+

0.383

0.024

0.024

1.0

0.323

-0.014

0.025

-0.6

Education

Elementary Education (partial/ complete) [R]

0.434

0.286

Secondary Education (vocational)

0.336

-0.098”

0.017

-5.8

0.338

0.052”

0.015

3.4

Secondary Education (academic)

0.393

-0.041”

0.019

-2.2

0.305

0.019

0.019

1.0

University Education (partial/ complete)

0.346

-0.088 я

0.020

-4.5

0.378

0.093я

0.020

4.7

Economic Status

Full-Time Employed [R|

0.403

0.307

Part-Time Employed

0.444

0.041 *

0.025

1.6

0.286

-0.021

0.024

-0.9

Self-Employed

0.340

-0.064”

0.019

-3.4

0.337

0.030*

0.018

1.7

Housewife

0.384

-0.020

0.022

-0.9

0.332

0.025

0.021

1.2

Student

0.363

-0.040

0.027

-1.5

0.310

0.003

0.029

0.1

Unemployed

0.396

-0.007

0.026

-0.3

0.328

0.022

0.025

0.9

Retired/Other

0.379

-0.025

0.025

-1.0

0.344

0.037

0.025

1.5

Social Class

Upper/Upper Middle [R]

0.301

0.379

Lower Middle

0.388

0.087”

0.015

5.7

0.333

-0.047**

0.015

-3.0

Working Class

0.397

0.09”

0.019

5.1

0.286

-0.093**

0.019

-4.9

Lower Class

0.502

0.201”

0.023

GO

OO

0.227

-0.152”

0.021

-7.2

Period

1994-98

0.291

-0.014

0.016

-0.9

0.469

0.134**

0.017

7.8

1998-2004

0.664

0.359”

0.019

18.7

0.105

-0.230**

0.014

-16.8

2010-14 [R]

0.305

0.335

Source: Own calculations from WVS Longitudinal.

Note: Multinomial logit estimates based on 5,580 observations. [R] is reference category. Data by social groups was missing for 2005 through 2009. ** Marginal probability significant at 5% level; * Marginal probability significant at 10% level.

Predicted Probability of Low Satisfaction

Predicted Probability of High Satisfaction

Probability

Marginal

Probability

Standard

Error

z -Value

Probability

Marginal

Probability

Standard

Error

z -Value

Social Group

Whites [R]

0.348

0.264

Non-Whites

0.444

0.096”

0.014

7.0

0.254

-0.011

0.012

-0.9

Gender

Male [R|

0.430

0.247

Female

0.423

-0.007

0.009

-0.8

0.263

0.016

0.008

1.9

Friends

Not Very/At All Important [R]

0.444

0.260

Rather Important

0.416

-0.029”

0.011

-2.6

0.246

-0.014

0.011

-1.4

Very Important

0.426

-0.018*

0.012

-1.6

0.261

0.000

0.011

0.0

Religion

Not Very/At All Important [R]

0.488

0.192

Rather Important

0.445

-0.042**

0.016

-2.6

0.229

0.036

0.014

2.6

Very Important

0.411

-0.076**

0.015

-5.2

0.272

0.079

0.013

6.2

Health (self-assessed)

Good/Very Good [R|

0.339

0.338

Fair

0.448

0.109”

0.010

11.1

0.208

-0.130

0.009

-14.3

Poor

0.580

0.241**

0.013

18.7

0.150

-0.187

0.011

-17.5

Age

15-30 Years [R]

0.438

0.238

30-45 Years

0.437

0.000

0.012

0.0

0.242

0.004

0.011

0.4

45-60 Years

0.411

-0.026*

0.016

-1.7

0.277

0.038

0.015

2.6

60+ Years

0.358

-0.079**

0.025

-3.1

0.335

0.097

0.026

3.8

Marital Status

Married/Living Together

0.414

-0.021*

0.012

-1.7

0.260

0.001

0.012

0.1

Divorced/Separated/Widowed

0.456

0.021

0.020

1.1

0.206

-0.054

0.017

-3.2

Single Never Married [R]

0.435

0.259

Number of Children

None[R|

0.420

0.255

1-2

0.427

0.007

0.013

0.6

0.249

-0.006

0.012

-0.5

3+

0.432

0.012

0.015

0.8

0.263

0.009

0.014

0.6

Education

Elementary Education (partial/

0.469

0.237

complete) [R]

Secondary Education (vocational)

0.399

-0.070**

0.019

-3.7

0.270

0.033

0.017

1.9

Secondary Education (academic)

0.420

-0.049**

0.013

-3.8

0.262

0.025

0.012

2.0

University Education (partial/complete)

0.405

-0.064**

0.020

-3.2

0.237

0.000

0.017

0.0

Economic Status

Full-Time Employed [R]

0.415

0.259

Part-Time Employed

0.457

0.042**

0.018

2.3

0.225

-0.035

0.016

-2.2

Self-Employed

0.381

-0.034*

0.021

-1.6

0.304

0.045

0.020

2.3

Housewife

0.399

-0.016

0.018

-0.9

0.266

0.006

0.016

0.4

Student

0.426

0.011

0.018

0.6

0.279

0.019

0.017

1.2

Unemployed

0.468

0.053**

0.013

4.2

0.219

-0.041

0.012

-3.5

Retired/Other

0.367

-0.049**

0.022

-2.2

0.284

0.025

0.021

1.2

Predicted Probability of Low Satisfaction

Predicted Probability of High Satisfaction

Probability

Marginal

Probability

Standard

Error

Z -Value

Probability

Marginal

Probability

Standard

Error

Z - Value

Social Class

Upper/Upper Middle [R|

0.293

0.356

Lower Middle

0.393

0.100“

0.014

7.2

0.265

-0.091

0.013

-6.8

Working Class

0.406

0.114“

0.013

8.5

0.246

-0.110

0.013

-8.6

Lower Class

0.564

0.271“

0.015

18.2

0.167

-0.190

0.013

-14.2

Period

1994-98

0.508

0.131“

0.013

10.0

0.231

0.000

0.0

-0.04

1998-2004

0.517

  • *
  • *
  • -f •—

о

0.013

11.1

0.221

-0.010

0.0

-0.92

2005-09

0.317

-0.060“

0.012

-5.1

0.337

0.105**

0.0

9.01

2010-14 [R]

0.377

0.231

Source: Own calculations from WVS Longitudinal.

Note: Multinomial logit estimates based on 11,299 observations. [R] is reference category.

” Marginal probability significant at 5% level; * Marginal probability significant at 10% level.

did it affect life satisfaction. On the other hand, religiosity - which in both countries raised the PP of being happy - also increased life satisfaction: Tables 2.3 and 2.4 show, respectively, that in India and South Africa, persons for whom religion was very important had a significantly smaller PP of low satisfaction - and a significantly larger PP of high satisfaction - than persons for whom religion was not important.12

As Table 2.2 showed, the state of respondents’ health affected their happiness; it also significantly affected, as shown in Tables 2.3 and 2.4, their life satisfaction. The PP of low satisfaction was significantly smaller for those in good health than for those in poor health (Table 2.3: 29.3% vs. 46.1% for India; Table 2.4: 33.9% vs. 58% for South Africa) while the PP of high satisfaction was significantly greater for those in good health than for those in poor health (Table 2.3: 46.6% vs. 24.6% for India; Table 2.4: 33.8% vs. 15% for South Africa).

In a similar vein, the social class of respondents in India and in South Africa affected both their happiness (Table 2.2) and their life satisfaction. The PP of low satisfaction was significantly larger for those in the lowest social class than for those in the highest class (Table 2.3: 50.2% vs. 30.1% for India; Table 2.4: 56.4% vs. 29.3% for South Africa) while the PP of high satisfaction was significantly greater for those in the highest social class than for those in the lowest class (Table 2.3: 37.9% versus 22.7% for India, and Table 2.4: 35.6% versus 16.7% for South Africa).

The results for education in South Africa provide an interesting contrast between emotional well-being (happiness) and life satisfaction. As Table 2.2 showed, acquiring educational qualifications did not have any significant effect on the PP of happiness in South Africa but, as shown in Table 2.4, it did have a significant effect on life satisfaction. The PP of low satisfaction was significantly smaller for those with high than for those with low qualifications (Table 2.4: 40.5% for university vs. 46.9% for elementary) while the PP of high satisfaction was significantly greater for those with high than for those with low qualifications (Table 2.4: 27% for secondary vs. 23.7% for elementary). In India, however, education made a significant contribution to both happiness and life satisfaction.

The issue of age also provides a contrast between happiness and life satisfaction. As Table 2.2 showed, age did not have any significant effect on the predicted probability of happiness in South Africa, but it did have a significant effect on life satisfaction. The PP of low satisfaction was significantly higher for those in the 15-30 age group than for those in the 45-60 and 65+ age groups (Table 2.4: 43.8% for 15-30 vs. 35.8% for 65+) while the PP of high satisfaction was significantly lower for those in the 15-30 age group than for those in the 45-60 and 65+ age groups (Table 2.4: 23.8% for 15-30 vs. 33.5% for 65+). In India, however, both the predicted probability of happiness and that of high life satisfaction increased - and, conversely, that of low life satisfaction decreased - with respondents’ age.

 
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