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Emotional abuse

Figure 4.1 shows that 14% of all wives suffered some kind of emotional abuse - they were humiliated, threatened, or insulted - and this proportion rose to 17.5% for wives from the SCs and fell to 9.1% for wives from the NMUCs. Similarly, Figure 4.2 shows that with 14% of all wives suffering some kind of emotional abuse, 19.2% of wives from the poorest households, compared to 8.4% of wives from the richest households, suffered emotional abuse of one kind or the other.

Table 4.3 shows the percentage of wives who been subjected to different types of emotional abuse by their husbands. Overall, 9.8% of wives said that they had been humiliated, 5.6% said they had been threatened, and 8.2% said they had been insulted by their husbands. The highest rates of emotional abuse were reported by women from the SCs (12.1%, 7.4%, and 10.2% for, respectively, humiliated, threatened, and insulted), and the lowest rates of emotional abuse were reported by women from the NMUCs (6.1%, 2.9%, and 5.7% for, respectively, humiliated, threatened, and insulted). There was an inverse relation between incidences of emotional

Percentage of wives who experienced emotional abuse, by social group Source

Figure 4.1 Percentage of wives who experienced emotional abuse, by social group Source: Own calculations from the National Family Health Survey-4.

Note: Emotional Abuse: humiliated, threatened, insulted.

Percentage of wives who experienced emotional abuse, by household wealth

Figure 4.2 Percentage of wives who experienced emotional abuse, by household wealth

Source: Own calculations from the National Family Health Survey-4.

Note: Emotional Abuse: humiliated, threatened, insulted.

Percentage of Wives in Each Group Answering Yes

Humiliated by Husband

Threatened by Husband

Insulted by Husband

All Women

9.8

5.6

8.2

Social Group

Scheduled Tribe

10.1

6.5

9.2

Scheduled Caste

12.1

7.4

10.2

Non-Muslim Other Backwards Caste

10.2

5.8

8.1

Muslims

10.1

5.5

8.5

Non-Muslim Upper Class

6.1

2.9

5.7

Household Wealth

Poorest

13.2

8.6

11.3

Poor

11.2

6.7

9.9

Middle

10.9

6.1

8.7

Rich

8.3

4

7.2

Richest

6.1

3.1

4.8

Source: Own calculations from the National Family Health Survey-4.

abuse and household wealth. Women in the richest households were least likely (6.1%, 3.1%, and 4.8% for, respectively, humiliated, threatened, and insulted), while women in the poorest households were most likely (13.2%, 8.6%, and 11.3% for, respectively, humiliated, threatened, and insulted) to suffer emotional abuse.

Physical abuse

Figure 4.3 shows that 31.8% of all wives suffered some kind of physical abuse - pushed, slapped, punched/hit, arm twisted/hair pulled, kicked/ dragged, sexual violence - and this proportion rose to 39.2% for wives from the SCs and fell to 21.6% for wives from the NMUCs. Similarly, Figure 4.4 shows that, with 31.8% of all wives suffering some kind of physical abuse, 44.5% of wives from the poorest households, compared to 17.1% of wives from the richest households, suffered physical abuse of one kind or the other.

Table 4.4 shows that the most common form of physical abuse was slapping: 27.5% of all the women said that their husbands had slapped them, and this rose to 30% for ST women and to 33.4% for SC women. Being

Percentage of wives who experienced physical abuse, by social group Source

Figure 4.3 Percentage of wives who experienced physical abuse, by social group Source: Own calculations from the NFHS-4.

Note: Physical Abuse: pushed, slapped, punched, arm twisted, kicked, strangled, threatened with a weapon, sexual violence.

Percentage of wives who experienced physical abuse, by household wealth

Figure 4.4 Percentage of wives who experienced physical abuse, by household wealth

Source: Own calculations from the NFHS-4.

Note: Physical Abuse: pushed, slapped, punched, arm twisted, kicked, strangled, threatened with a weapon, sexual violence.

Pushed or Shaken

Slapped

Punched or Hit

Kicked or Dragged

Arm Twisted or Hair Pulled

Sexual

Violence

All Women

13.7

27.5

8.4

9

11.5

6.9

Social Group

Scheduled Tribe

15.6

30.4

9.7

10.5

13.7

8.4

Scheduled Caste

17.9

33.4

11.5

12.3

15.4

8.8

Non-Muslim Other Backwards Caste

13.8

28

8.7

8.9

11.6

6.9

Muslims

14.3

27.3

8.0

8.4

11.2

6.9

Non-Muslim Upper Class

8.1

18.9

4.1

5.1

6.4

4.2

Household Wealth

Poorest

21.7

39.8

14.7

14.7

19.6

11.4

Poor

16.7

33.9

10.4

11.2

14.9

8.2

Middle

14.5

29.1

9

10.2

11.8

7.2

Rich

11.3

22.8

5.5

6.4

8.4

5.2

Richest

6.1

14.6

3.5

3.5

4.6

3.5

Source: Own calculations from the National Family Health Survey-4.

pushed or shaken and having one’s arm twisted or hair pulled were the next most common forms of spousal assault: 13.7% of all women - and 17.9% and 15.6% of, respectively, SC and ST women - said that their husbands had pushed or shaken them, and 11.5% of all women - and 15.4% and 13.7% of, respectively, SC and ST women - said that their husbands had twisted their arm or pulled their hair. The lowest incidence, for all forms of physical abuse, was among wives from the NMUCs. Table 4.4 shows that, in the poorest households, 39.8% of women had been slapped by their husbands, 21.7% of women had been pushed or shaken, and 19.6% had had their arm twisted or their hair pulled. Again, the incidence of spousal abuse was lowest among wives living in the richest households.

 
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