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Contemporary Criminological Theory: Crime and Criminal Behaviour in the Age of Moral Uncertainty

I. From the modern to the postmodern conditionI. Introduction and structure of the bookIntroductionThe structure of the bookSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsFurther readingReferencesThe rise and triumph of the modernThree philosophical epochsFrom the premodern to the modernThe rise of modern societyCrime and policing: from the premodern to the modernFrom golden age to fragmentationPolicing fragmented modernityCrime in fragmented modernityPolicing fragmented modernity revisitedSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsFurther readingNotesReferencesExplaining crime in the modern eraThe rational actor modelContemporary deterrence theoriesContemporary rational choice theoriesRoutine activities theoryRational actor model: conclusions and policy implicationsThe predestined actor modelBiological theoriesPsychological theoriesPsychodynamic theoriesBehavioural learning theoriesCognitive learning theoriesSociological theoriesSocial disorganization thesisDeviant subculture theoriesSocial control theoriesPredestined actor model: conclusion and policy implicationsThe victimized actor modelLabelling theoriesConflict and radical theoriesVictimized actor model: conclusions and policy implicationsDiscussion and conclusionSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsFurther readingReferencesThe crisis of modernityAn age of moral uncertaintyThe rise of neoliberalismThe fragmentation of modernityNeoconservatism‘The Third Way’: the rise and fall of ‘New’ LabourAn assessment of ‘New’ LabourPolicy implications of the crisis of modernitySummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesII. Crime and criminal behaviour in the era of fragmented modernityFragmentation of modernity and the postmodern conditionThe emergence of the postmodernCriminal justice and the postmodern conditionCrime and the risk societyThe clash of civilizationsCriticisms of the clash of civilizations thesisAn age of moral ambiguity: post-truth societyPolicy implications of the postmodern conditionSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesConstitutive criminologyIntroductionJacques Lacan and constitutive criminologyChaos theory and constitutive criminologyConstitutive criminology and the ‘war on terror’Deconstructing the UK’s war on terrorPolicing and the war on terrorAnalysing the war on terrorMarginalized discoursesConstitutive penologyPolicy implications of constitutive criminologySummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsFurther readingReferencesAnarchist criminologyPeacemaking criminologyThe peacemaking pyramid paradigmCriticism of peacemaking criminologyRestorative justice as an alternative to criminal justiceConclusionAnarchist criminology revisitedPolicy implications of anarchism and peacemaking criminologySummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesCultural criminologyThe focus of cultural criminologyThe carnival ofcrimeThe schizophrenia of crimeMethods and applicationsPsychosocial criminologyDeviant leisureCultural criminology and the mass mediaMedia, society and criminologyNews representation and the social construction of crimeCrime, entertainment and the postmodern imaginationMedia, crime and social controlMediatized crime and crime control - direct and indirect effectsThe future of cultural criminologyPolicy implications of cultural criminologySummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingNotesReferencesGlobalization and organized crimeGlobalization and neoliberalismThe global criminal economyOrganized crime in Europe and the UKDance culture - the globalization of devianceResponding to organized crime in the UKPolicy implications of globalization and organized crimeSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesSouthern theory and criminologyIntroduction(Re)conceptualizing the South in criminologyNorth/South and global convergence in the digital eraRethinking criminology from the global SouthCrimes outside the metropole: the many worlds of violenceGendered crime and victimization in the global SouthPenality, punishment and Southern criminologyPolicy implications of Southern theorySummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesCritical race theoryDefining critical race theoryCore themesCore theoretical frameworkThe myths of US democracyCritical race criminologyHip-hop: from South Bronx to global footprintSharing a parallel universeConclusionEpilogue: from slavery to Black Lives MatterBlack Lives Matter: an activist movementA week that shook a nationAn alternative discoursePolicy implications of critical race theorySummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesTerrorism and state violenceIntroductionSocial science explanations of terrorismContemporary criminological explanations of terrorismRational choice theoriesDeterrence theoriesStrain theoriesSocial disorganization theoriesSituational theoriesDeveloping areas of researchThe war on terrorismState violence as state terrorismIntroductionDefining state terrorism and violenceThe difficulties of identifying state terrorismThe problem of agencyTerrorism and postmodernism revisitedPolicy implications of terrorism and state violenceSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesGender, feminism and masculinityIntroductionThe historical development of feminismPerspectives in feminist theoryCriminology and womenThe scope of feminist criminologyThe emergence of feminist criminologyThe gender equality argumentThe influence of radical criminologyCriminological theories from a feminist perspectiveCrime and masculinitiesQueer criminologyGender, feminism and masculinity revisitedTERF warsMisandry: the invisible hatred of menInvoluntary celibates (incels)Policy implications of the gendered criminalSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingNoteReferencesGreen and species criminologyIntroductionThe case for a green criminologyAnimal rightsFrom the beginning ... a selective historyAnimal protectionThe development of veganismDevelopment of direct actionFormation of the Oxford GroupAnimal Liberation FrontPhilosophical and legal approaches to animal rightsUtilitarian approachesRights-based approachAbolitionismCritics and criticisms(II)legitimate cruelty to animalsPolicy implications of green and species criminologySummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesBio-critical criminologyIntroductionBiosocial theoryThe postmodern critique of scienceTraditional scientific principlesThe postmodern critique of scienceBio-critical criminologySociobiology revisited - recent sociobiological explanations of childhood delinquencyCase study:ACE (adverse childhood experiences)Overview of ACEsACEs and health inequalitiesCriticisms of ACEParliamentary submissionThe natural sciences revisited - do vaccines cause autism?The MMR hypothesisThe thimerosal hypothesisOther hypothesesConclusionSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesAbolitionism and convict criminologyIntroductionAbolitionismCritical carceral studiesNew abolition meets criminologyCrimeLawPunishmentSafety and accountabilityJusticeThe lessons and experiences of the new abolitionistsConvict criminologySummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingReferencesIII. From the postmodern condition to a revitalized modernity The rise of political populismIntroductionNeoliberalism in crisisThe global rise of populismDistrust of elitesThe alt-rightLeaving EuropeA deeply divided BritainEast Marsh and Castle: a tale of contrastsSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingNotesReferencesRisk, surveillance and social controlIntroductionThe risk society revisitedThe surveillance societyUniversities, neoliberalism and new public managementPunishing the poorRamping up the penal state in response to social insecurityRe-linking social and penal policyCrafting the neoliberal stateNeoliberal penalityExactly what ‘is’ neoliberalism?The US as the heartland of increased penalityThe neoliberal penality that never wasConclusionSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingNotesReferencesUltra-realist criminologyIntroductionCriminological closureThe influence of zemiologyThe influence of critical realismTranscendental materialismUltra-realism revisitedEight critiques of ultra-realist crime causation theoryThe ultra-realist explanation of the gender gap in crimeThe pseudo-pacification process treats gender norms as epiphenomenal to capitalism.The pseudo-pacification process ignores social reproduction, offering a framework that only examines crime through the lens of capitalist production and consumption.Ultra-realism’s reason for dismissing gender norms as a factor in offending is founded on a denial of the antecedent fallacyUltra-realism’s explanation of violence reduction through drives, libidinal energy and sublimationThe pseudo-pacification process naturalizes violent drives, contradicting ultrarealism’s claim that we are hardwired for plasticity.In presupposing a hydraulic model of the psyche, the pseudo-pacification process sets up a zero-sum game between socio-symbolic competition and physical aggression.Ultra-realism’s explanation ofcrime as an expression of capitalist values and special libertyIt is incoherent to understand special liberty and the pseudo-pacification process as mutually reinforcing processes.Ultra-realism’s crime causation theory ignores the array of values, beliefs and vocabularies of motive for crime that are not an expression of capitalism.Ultra-realism’s direct expression theory of the crime-political economy nexusConclusionSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingNoteReferencesRadical moral communitarian criminologyIntroductionThe mainstream communitarian agendaRadical egalitarian communitarianismThe concept of community reconsideredThe development of the concept of individualism in Western EuropeIndividualism and Christian theologyIndividualism and politicsIndividualism and economicsIndividualism and cultureThe origins of Durkheim’s social theoryDurkheim and social solidarityDurkheim and radical moral communitarianismPolicy implications of radical moral communitarian criminologyAn acceptable incomeSuitable accommodationEntitlement to respectGood-quality health careGood-quality educationProtection from crime and antisocial behaviourConclusionSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingNotesReferencesConclusion Post-COVID-1 9 societyThe story so far . . .days that changed the worldThe experts are back in fashionCOVID-19 conspiracy theoriesBlaming 5GBill Gates as scapegoatThe virus escaped from a Chinese labCOVID was created as a biological weaponThe US military imported COVID into ChinaGMOs are somehow to blameCOVID-19 does not actually existThe pandemic is being manipulated by the ‘deep state’COVID is a plot by Big PharmaCOVID death rates are inflatedCOVID-19 conspiracies exploredA turning point in historyBad guys being badPandemic crime opportunitiesCybercrimeFraudCounterfeit and substandard goodsOrganized and property crimeNeoliberalism revisitedConcluding commentsSummary of main pointsDiscussion questionsSuggested further readingNotesReferences

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