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Automotive Industrialisation: Industrial Policy and Development in Southeast Asia

The Global Automotive IndustryGlobal Automotive ProducersGlobal Automotive SuppliersNew Technology Movements In the Automotive IndustryThemes and Aims of This BookThe Structure of This BookNotesIndustrial Policy, Global Value Chains, and the Southeast Asian Automotive IndustryIntroductionIndustrial PolicyState capacity: Southeast Asia countries as neo-developmental statesIndustrial policy debatesThe WTO rulesHorizontal-vertical and hard-soft industrial policyAutomotive industrial policy and policy spaceGlobal Value ChainsThe GVC conceptGVCs and the automotive industryAssemblers, suppliers, and industrial upgrading in the automotive industryAssemblersSuppliersDevelopments in GVC researchConclusionsNotesOverview of the Automotive Industry in Southeast AsiaIntroductionVehicle Production, Sales, and Market Trends in Southeast AsiaAutomotive Producers in Southeast AsiaR&D in Southeast AsiaThe Local Automotive and Parts Industry in Southeast AsiaLocal capital in assemblyLocal Tier-1 suppliersThailandMalaysiaIndonesiaThe PhilippinesAutomotive and Parts Trade in Southeast AsiaConclusionsNotesJapanese Automotive MNCs and AseanIntroductionJapanese Automotive MNCs in Southeast AsiaMarketing and production strategies in Southeast AsiaCar strategy in Asia in the 1990sExport and global production strategies since the late 1990sASEAN automotive industrial policies since the 2000sLocational strategies in Southeast AsiaThailandIndonesiaMalaysiaThe PhilippinesVietnamLocal business strategiesTechnology transfer at the firm levelJapanese Automotive MNCs and the Japanese GovernmentASEAN Integration, Japanese Automotive MNCs, and the Japanese GovernmentIndustrial cooperation schemes in ASEAN during the 1970s and 1980sThe brand to brand complementation (BBC) scheme in 1988Establishment of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) in 1992From BBC to the ASEAN industrial cooperation (AICO) scheme in 1996ASEAN economic communit)' (AEC)Case Study of Toyota’s Operations in Southeast AsiaConclusionsNotesThailandIntroductionOverview of the Automotive Industry in ThailandDebates on automotive industrialisation in ThailandThailand in the global automotive industryProduction and sales of the Thai automotive industryStructure of the Thai automotive industryThailand in the regional automotive economyDevelopment of the Automotive Industry in ThailandInitial policies of import substitution (1960-1970)Localisation policy and LCRs (1971-1977)Strengthening localisation capacity (1978-1990)Liberalisation, exporting, and the 1997 Asian financial crisis (1991-1999)The beginning of liberalisationImpacts of the 1997 Asian financial crisisCreating international competitiveness and ‘product champions’ with WTO-compliant policy making (after 2000)The 1st Automotive Master Plan (2002-2006)The 2nd Automotive Master Plan (2007-2011)The 3rd Automotive Master Plan (2012-2016)Electric vehicle action plan (2016-2036)Soft industrial policyTechnology transfer and human resource developmentClusteringUpgrading within the automotive GVC?Challenges to the Thai Automotive IndustryConclusionsNotesIndonesiaIntroductionOverview of the Indonesian Automotive IndustryAutomotive production and sales trendsThe structure of the Indonesian automotive industryIndonesia’s automotive tradeDevelopment of the Indonesian Automotive IndustryBackground: early stages (1928-1968)Localisation through import-substituting industrialisation (1969-1992)New protectionist policy, the national car, and the WTO dispute (1993-1998)Under the post-WTO regimeThe Liberalisation Era (1999-2012)New industrial policy: the low cost green car project (2013-present)Challenges to the Indonesian Automotive IndustryThe role of local parts suppliersClusters and the absence of soft industrial policyConclusionsNotesMalaysiaIntroductionOverview of the Malaysian Automotive IndustryDebates on automotive industrialisation in MalaysiaProduction, sales, and structure of the Malaysian automotive industryMalaysian automotive tradeDevelopment of the Malaysian Automotive IndustryImport substitution period (1967-1982)State-led development period (1983-2003)Preferential tax and license policiesVendor development and local content strategyUnder the post-2000 WTO regimeLiberalisation period (2004-present)National automotive policy: 2006, 2009, and 2014Challenges to the Malaysian Automotive IndustryCluster and soft industrial policiesProtectionist policiesProtonConclusionsNotesAppendicesThe PhilippinesIntroductionOverview of the Automotive Industry in the PhilippinesAutomotive production, sales, and structureAutomotive trade in the PhilippinesDevelopment of the Automotive Industry in The PhilippinesImport substitution period (1951-1972)Localisation period (1973-1995)The progressive car manufacturing programme in 1973The car development programme in 1987CDC revision: the people’s car programme of 1990 and the luxury car programme of 1992Liberalisation period (1996-2002)Moves to liberalisation: deregulation of the automotive industry in 1996Under the post-2000 WTO regime (2003-present)Liberalisation and the automotive export programme of 2003The comprehensive automotive resurgence strategy (CARS) programme of 2015Challenges to the Philippines’ Automotive IndustryAutomotive componentsLocal content and vehicle costsImportation of second-hand vehiclesFree trade agreementsConclusionsNotesAppendicesVietnamIntroductionOverview of the Automotive Industry in VietnamAutomotive production and salesAutomotive structureAutomotive trade in VietnamDevelopment of the Automotive Industry in VietnamPrior to joining the WTO (1990-2006)Vietnam after joining the WTO (2007-2017)AEC free trade (2018-present)Challenges to Vietnam’S Automotive IndustryMotorisationPolicy conflictsAutomotive components, local content, and vehicle costsImportation of second-hand vehiclesFree-trade agreements and the AECConclusions and ComparisonsNotesIntroductionDrivers of Automotive Development in ASEANMarket size and growthInward foreign investment, global value chains, and global production networksIndustrial PolicyImport-substituting industrialisation before the WTOHard industrial policies under the WTO from 2000Soft industrial policiesJapanese Multinational Automotive Producers and the Japanese GovernmentChallenges and ProspectsChallenges for policy-makingProspectsNotes

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