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Rewilding European Landscapes

I The Theory of RewildingRewilding Abandoned Landscapes in EuropeIntroductionEuropean Landscapes: Examining the ParadigmsWere Traditional Agricultural Practices Environmentally Friendly?Did Traditional Rural Populations Live Well?Are Current Efforts to Maintain Traditional Landscapes Likely to Succeed?The Benefits of RewildingDefining RewildingBenefits of Rewilding for BiodiversityBenefits of Rewilding for People: Ecosystem ServicesThe Challenges of RewildingConflicts with WildlifeLimits to Ecological ResilienceFinal RemarksReferencesEuropean Wilderness in a Time of Farmland AbandonmentThe History and Value of WildernessMeasuring and Mapping Wilderness—A Brief Review of Metrics and MethodsWilderness MetricsWilderness ConservationFarmland Abandonment as Opportunity for Wilderness ExpansionConclusionsReferencesEcosystem Services: The Opportunities of Rewilding in EuropeIntroductionThe Spatial Distribution of Ecosystem Services in EuropeWilderness, Rewilding and Ecosystem ServicesWildernessMethodsWilderness and Ecosystem ServicesEcosystem Services and Scenarios of RewildingThe Economic Benefits of RewildingRegulating BenefitsCultural BenefitsDiscussionReferencesII Rewilding and BiodiversityBringing Large Mammals Back: Large Carnivores in EuropeIntroductionTrends in Large Carnivores in EuropeTo the Edge of ExtinctionMultiple Causes of RecoveryThe Current Status of PopulationsBearsWolvesEurasian LynxHow Far Can We Take the Recovery Process?What are the Characteristics of “Natural Predation Processes”?The Pervasive Impact of HumansThe Social Tolerance of Humans for Large Carnivores and Large HerbivoresThe Problem of Natural Processes as a GoalFrom Wilderness and Natural Processes to a Future Orientated CoexistenceConclusionsReferencesTop Scavengers in a Wilder EuropeIntroduction: Rewilding Ecosystem Services, Not Only Vertebrate PopulationsThe Role of Carcasses Within EcosystemsVultures and Humans: An Unstable AllianceVulture Restaurants and the Loss of a Pulsed ResourceHow do Vultures Fit into a Rewilding Continent?New Services Provided by VulturesDiscussion and ConclusionReferencesRewilding: Pitfalls and Opportunities for Moths and ButterfliesRewilding Small-Sized Biodiversity TooEuropean Lepidoptera: Numbers and TrendsLepidoptera: Diurnal and Nocturnal Life-StylesConservation Objectives: Semi-Natural Biotopes Versus RewildingControlled Rewilding: Reconciling the ObjectivesWhat About Fertile Agricultural Regions?A Case Study: Farmland Abandonment in Peneda and Its Effects on Macro-mothsHabitat Resource Heterogeneity at Multiple Spatial Scales is KeyWrapping It Up and the Way ForwardReferencesVegetation Restoration and Other Actions to Enhance Wildlife in European Agricultural LandscapesIntroductionThe Agriculture and Conservation ParadoxDesigning Restoration on Agricultural Land by Strategic RevegetationStrategic Revegetation in Farmed FieldsOther Options for Strategic Revegetation in Agricultural LandscapesRestoring or Creating Other Specific Elements to Benefit Wildlife and Particular ServicesA Practitioner's PerspectiveForest Restoration by Land SeparationConclusionsReferencesMaintaining Disturbance-Dependent HabitatsIntroductionA Picture of Historical European LandscapesAn Ongoing Debate…Temporal Evolution of the European LandscapeThe Role of Natural DisturbancesThe Pre-Neolithic Ecosystem EngineersFire DynamicsDisturbances and DiversityDiversity and Intermediate DisturbanceEffects of Land-Use Change on Disturbance RegimesMaintaining Disturbance-Dependent HabitatsWild Herbivores: Natural (Re)colonization or (Re)introduction?Prescribed BurningConcluding RemarksReferencesIII Rewillding in PracticeRewilding Europe: A New Strategy for an Old ContinentThe Opportunity of ChangeA New Vision for an Old ContinentThe InitiativeNominations from all over EuropeMain ObjectivesThe Operating ModelApplying the Model to the Rewilding AreasGeneralRewildingCommunicationEnterprise DevelopmentFirst Results in the Rewilding AreasWestern Iberia: Ancient Dehesa and Montado LandscapesVelebit Mountains: The Wild West of the Adriatic CoastEastern Carpathians: One of Europe's Top Wildlife AreasSouthern Carpathians: A Wilderness Arc at the Heart of EuropeDanube Delta: Europe's Unrivalled WetlandA Future Outlook for Rewilding EuropeReferencesPreparing a New Generation of Wilderness Entrepreneurs Lessons from the Erasmus Intensive Programme 'European Wilderness Entrepreneurship' 2013IntroductionEntrepreneurship in Conservation EducationCase Study: The Erasmus Intensive Programme on European Wilderness EntrepreneurshipDesigning a Wilderness Entrepreneurship CurriculumWilderness Entrepreneurship CompetencesLearning Strategies for Wilderness Entrepreneurship EducationLearning Environments for Wilderness Entrepreneurship EducationLessons Learned for Wilderness Entrepreneurship EducationReferencesTowards a European Policy for RewildingIntroduction: A Historical PerspectiveCurrent Conservation Policies in the EUNationally Designated Protected AreasBirds and Habitats DirectivesOverall Picture of Protected Areas in the EUAgriculture and ConservationOpportunities for Wilderness and RewildingGlobal and European Conservation TargetsRecommendations for RewildingReferences
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