School Discipline Resources
Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the era of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.
Losen, D. J., Keith, II, M. A., Hodson, C. L., & Martinez, T. E. (2016). Charter schools, civil rights and school discipline: A comprehensive review. Los Angeles, CA: The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at The Civil Rights Project/ Proyecto Derechos Civiles.
Milner, IV, H. R., Cunningham, H. B., Delale-O’Connor, L., & Kestenberg, E. G. (2019). “These kids are out of control”: Why we must reimagine “classroom management” for equity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Okilwa, N. S., Khalifa, M., & Briscoe, F. (Eds.) (2017). The school to prison pipeline: The role of culture & discipline in school. Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Publishing Ltd.
Rumberger, R. W., & Losen, D. J. (2016). The high cost of harsh discipline and its disparate impact. Los Angeles, CA: The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles.
Winn, M. T. (2018). Justice on both sides: Transforming education through restorative justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
The Advancement Project. (2014). Restorative practices: Fostering healthy relationships & promoting positive discipline in schools: A guide for educators. Cambridge, MA: The Schott Foundation for Public Education.
Ahmed, S., & Walker, C. (2018, May 25). There has been, on average, 1 school shooting every week this year. CNN. Retrieved from www.cnn.com/2018/ 03/02/us/school-shootings-2018-list-trnd/index.html
Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the era of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.
Anderson, K. P., & Ritter, G. W. (2017). Disparate use of exclusionary discipline evidence: Evidence on inequities in school discipline from a U.S. state. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 25(49). http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.25.2787
Barnum, M. (2016, March 27). Exclusive: Data shows 3 of the 5 biggest school districts hire more security officers than counselors. The 74. Retrieved from www.the74million.org/article/exclusive-data-shows-3-of-the-5-biggest-school-districts-hire-more-security-officers-than-counselors/
Barnum, M. (2019, February 14). New studies point to a big downside for schools bringing in more police. Chalkbeat. Retrieved from www.chalkbeat. org/posts/us/2019/02/14/police-schools-research-parkland/
Bonilla-Silva, E. (2017). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in America (5th edition). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Committee for Children, (n.d.). TO
Corley, C. (2018). Do police officers in schools really make them safer. NPRAll Things Considered. Retrieved from www.npr.org/2018/03/08/591753884/ do-police-officers-in-schools-really-make-them-safer
The Council ofState Governments Justice Center. (2017). Realizing thefull vision of school discipline reform: A framework for statewide change. New York: Author.
DiAngelo, R. (2018). fragility: Why it’s so hard for white people to talk about racism. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Duncan, A. (2014). Rethinking school discipline: Remarks of U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan at the release of the joint DOJ-ED school discipline guidance package. The Academies at Frederick Douglass High School, Baltimore, MD. Retrieved from ww.ed.gov/news/speeches/rethinking-school-discipline
Fabelo, T, Thompson, M. D., Plotkin, M., Carmichael, D., Marchbanks, M. P., & Booth, E. A. (2011). Breaking schools’ rules: A statewide study of how school discipline relates to student’s success and juvenile justice involvement. New York: Council of State Governments Justice Center, and College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, Public Policy Research Institute.
Fausset, R., Perez-Pena, R., & Blinder, A. (2015, October 28). Race and discipline in spotlight after South Carolina officer drags student. The New York Times. Retrieved from ww.nytimes.com/2015/10/28/us/spring-valley-high-school-sc-officer-arrest.html
Finn, J. D., & Servoss, T. J. (2014). Misbehavior, suspensions, and security measures in high school: Racial/ethnic and gender differences. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 5(2), Article 11.
Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness to intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 157—171.
Gershenson, S., Holt, S. B., & Papageorge, N. (2016). Who believes in me? The effect of student-teacher demographic match on teacher expectations. Economics of Education Review, 52, 209-224.
Gilliam, W. S., Maupin, A. N., Reyes, C. R., Accavitti, M., & Shic, F. (2016). Do early educators’ implicit biases regarding sex and race relate to behavior expectations and recommendations of expulsions and suspensions? New Haven, CT: Yale University Child Care Center.
Gopalan, M., & Nelson. A. A. (2019). Understanding the racial discipline gap in schools. AERA Open, https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858419844613
The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. (2019). Racial disparities in school discipline have little to do with student behavior. Retrieved from ww.jbhe. com/2019/07/racial-disparities-in-school-discipline-have-little-to-do-with-different-student-behavior/
Keierleber, M. (2019). Lessons from Parkland: 6 big things we’ve learned about student safety, school security, and resilience since the tragic 2018 massacre.
The 74. Retrieved from ww.the74million.org/lessons-from-parkland-6-big-things-weve-learned-about-student-safety-school-security-and-resilience-since-th e-tragic-2018-massacre/
Lewis, C., Butler, B., Bonner, F., & Joubert, M. (2010). African American male discipline patterns and school district responses resulting impact on academic achievement: Implications for urban educators and policy makers. Journal of African American Males in Education, 1 (1), 8—25.
Lindsay, C. A., & Hart, C. M. D. (2017). Exposure to same-race teachers and student disciplinary outcomes for Black students in North Carolina. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 39(3), 485—510.
Lindsay, C. A., Lee, V., & Lloyd, T. (2018). The prevalence of police officers in U.S. Schools. Urban Institute. Retrieved from wvw.urban.org/urban-wire/ prevalence-police-officers-us-schools
Mansfield, K. C., Rainbolt, S., & Fowler., E. S. (2018). Implementing restorativejustice as a step toward racial equity in school discipline. Teachers College Record, 120(14), 1-24.
Mattison, E., & Aber, M. S. (2007). Closing the achievement gap: The association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes. American Journal of Com mun ity Psychology, 40(1), 1-12.
McNeely, C. A., Nonemaker, J. M., & Blum, R. W. (2002). Promoting student connectedness to school: From the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Journal of School Health, 72(4), 138-147.
Milner, IV, H. R., Cunningham, H. B., Delale-O’Connor, L., & Kestenberg, E.G. (2019). “These Kids are out of control”: Why we must reimagine “classroom management “for equity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Na, C., & Gottfredson, D. C. (2013). Police officers in schools: Effects on school crime and the processing of offending behaviors. Justice Quarterly, 30(4), 619-650.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network Schools Committee (NCTSN). (2017). Creating, supporting, and sustaining trauma-informed schools: A system framework. Los Angeles, CA, and Durham, NC: National Center for Child Traumatic Stress.
National Clearinghouse on Supportive School Discipline (NCSSD). (n.d.). Pushout. Retrieved from https://supportiveschooldiscipline.org/learn/ reference-guides/pushout
Owens, J., & McLanahan, S. S. (2019). Unpacking the drivers of racial disparities in school suspension and expulsion. Social Forces, 1-30. DOI: 10.1093/ sf/soz095.
Petteruti, A. (2011). Education under arrest: The case against policy in schools. Washington, D.C.: Justice Policy Institute. Retrieved from wwwjusticepolicy. org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/educationunderarrest_fullreport.pdf
Quereshi, A., & Okonofua, J. (2017). Locked out of the classroom: How implicit bias contributes to disparities in school discipline. New York: NAACP Legal Defense Fund. Retrieved from ww.naacpldf.org/files/about-us/Bias_Reportv2017_ 30_l l_FINAL.pdf
Rafa, A. (2018). Alternative school discipline strategies. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. Retrieved from www.ecs.org/alternative-school-discipline-strategies/
Rafa, A. (2019). The status of school discipline in state policy. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. Retrieved from www.ecs.org/ the-status-of-school-discipline-in-state-policy/
Rausch, K. M., & Skiba, R. J. (2006). The academic cost of discipline: The contribution of school discipline to achievement. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Center for Evaluation and Education Policy.
RTI Action Network, (n.d.). What is RTI? Retrieved from www.rtinetwork.org/ learn/what/whatisrti
Rudd, T. (2014, February). Racial disproportionality in school discipline: Implicit bias is heavily implicated. Columbus, OH: Kirwan Institute, The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/racial-disproportionality-in-school-discipline-implicit-bias-is-heavily-implicated/
Sanchez,J. I. (2015). VOYCE’s groundbreaking bill, SB 100, to address “school-to-prison pipeline” passes Illinois legislature. Retrieved from http:// voyceproject.org/2015/05/21/groundbreaking-bill-sb-100-to-address-school-to-prison-pipeline-passes-illinois-legislature/
Skiba, R. J. (2015). Interventions to address racial/ethnic disparities in school discipline: Can systems reform be race-neutral? In R. Bangs, & L. E. Davis (Eds.), Race and social problems: Restructuring inequality (pp. 107-124). New York: Springer Science + Business Media.
Skiba, R. J., Arredondo, M. I., & Williams, N. T. (2017). In and of itself a risk factor: Exclusionary discipline and the school-to-prison pipeline. In K. J. Fasching-Varner, L. L. Martin, R. W. Mitchell, K. P. Bennett-Haron, & A. Daneshzadeh. (Eds). Understanding dismantling, and disrupting the prison-to-schoolpipeline (pp. 111-130). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Steinberg, M. R, & Lacoe, J. (2017). What do we know about school discipline reform? Education Next, /7(1), 1-23.
Theriot, M. T. (2009). School resource officers and the criminalization of student behavior, Journal of Criminal Justice, 57(3), 280-287.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. (2019). Beyond suspensions: Examining school discipline policies and connections to the school-to-prison pipeline for studen ts of color with disabilities. Washington, D.C.: Author. Retrieved from www.usccr. gov/pubs/2019/07-23-Beyond-Suspensions.pdf
United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. (2014). Civil rights data collection data snapshot: Early childhood data collection. Issue Brief No. 2. Retrieved from https://ocrdata.ed.gov/Downloads/CRDC-Early-Childhood-Education-Snapshot.pdf
United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, (n.d.). 2015-2016 civil rights data collection: Master list of 2015—2016 CRDC definitions. Retrieved from https://ocrdata.ed.gov/Downloads/Master-List-of-CRDC-Definitions.pdf
United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. (2018). 2015-2016 Civil rights data collection: School climate and safety. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/school-climate-and-safety.pdf
United States Government Accountability Office. (2018). K-12 education discipline disparities for Black students, boys, and students with disabilities. Retrieved from www.gao.gov/assets/700/690828.pdf
Vanderhaar, J. E., Petrosko, J. M., & Munoz, M. (2015). Reconsidering the alternatives: The relationship between suspension, disciplinary alternative school placement, subsequent juvenile detention, and the salience of race. In D. J. Losen (Ed.), Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers (pp. 222-236). New York: Teachers College Press.
Vidal, G. (2019, November 1). Manor ISD moves forward with plans for its own police department. CBS Austin. Retrieved from https://cbsaustin.com/news/ local/manor-isd-moves-forward-with-plans-for-its-own-police-department
Welsh, R. O., & Little, S. (2018). The school discipline dilemma: A comprehensive review of disparities and alternative approaches. Review of Educational Research, 88(6), 752-794.
Welton, A. D., Harris, T. O., Altamirano, K., & Williams, T. (2017). The politics of student voice. Conceptualizing a model for critical analysis. In M. D. Young & S. Diem (Eds.), Critical approaches to education policy analysis. Moving beyond tradition (pp. 83-110). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Welton, A., & Bertrand, M. (2019). Youth participatory action research as praxis: The importance of shared power among youth and adults to counter systemic racism. In A. Dache, S. J. Quaye, C. Linder, & K. M. McGuire (Eds.), Rise Up!: Activism as Education (pp. 49-68). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.