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Discussion Questions

  • 1. What are your state level policies and/or stances on exclusionary discipline? How has your school district responded to and interpreted the state policy discourse on exclusionary discipline?
  • 2. As the leader of your school, how do you communicate your expectations around student discipline? How does your racial identity contribute to your understanding of disciplinary practices? How might your expectations around discipline be racist?
  • 3. Do you know the statistics on school discipline in your school district and across your state? How do these statistics differ for white and nonwhite students?
  • 4. What alternatives do you have in place of disciplinary actions like school suspension? Do these alternatives directly address racism in discipline and require educators to examine their own implicit racial biases and anti-Blackness?
  • 5. What can you do to make students, especially students of color, feel more included and connected to their school community?

School Discipline Resources

  • • African-American Policy Forum: https://aapf.org
  • • The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles: https:// civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/k-12-education/school-discipline
  • • The Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Policy Center: https://csgjusticecenter.org/
  • • Justice Policy Institute: www.justicepolicy.org/index.html
  • • NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund: www.naacpldf.org

Recommended Readings

Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the era of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.

Losen, D. J., Keith, II, M. A., Hodson, C. L., & Martinez, T. E. (2016). Charter schools, civil rights and school discipline: A comprehensive review. Los Angeles, CA: The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at The Civil Rights Project/ Proyecto Derechos Civiles.

Milner, IV, H. R., Cunningham, H. B., Delale-O’Connor, L., & Kestenberg, E. G. (2019). “These kids are out of control”: Why we must reimagine “classroom management” for equity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Okilwa, N. S., Khalifa, M., & Briscoe, F. (Eds.) (2017). The school to prison pipeline: The role of culture & discipline in school. Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Publishing Ltd.

Rumberger, R. W., & Losen, D. J. (2016). The high cost of harsh discipline and its disparate impact. Los Angeles, CA: The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles.

Winn, M. T. (2018). Justice on both sides: Transforming education through restorative justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

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Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the era of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.

Anderson, K. P., & Ritter, G. W. (2017). Disparate use of exclusionary discipline evidence: Evidence on inequities in school discipline from a U.S. state. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 25(49). http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.25.2787

Barnum, M. (2016, March 27). Exclusive: Data shows 3 of the 5 biggest school districts hire more security officers than counselors. The 74. Retrieved from www.the74million.org/article/exclusive-data-shows-3-of-the-5-biggest-school-districts-hire-more-security-officers-than-counselors/

Barnum, M. (2019, February 14). New studies point to a big downside for schools bringing in more police. Chalkbeat. Retrieved from www.chalkbeat. org/posts/us/2019/02/14/police-schools-research-parkland/

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