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African Language Media: Development, Economics and Management

Focus/ attention/ priorityResources (sharing) – men, materials, machines and marketingNumber of local language speakers and cultural assertivenessPower equation and resource allocationRepackaging of content and formatReferencesI. Political economy of African language mediaThe political economy of indigenous language media in Nigeria and the challenge of survival in the Digital AgeIntroductionLanguage, ethnicity and power struggle in NigeriaNigerian political economy of the media: an overviewIndigenous language use in the mass mediaPolitical economy as a challenge to indigenous language mediaIndigenous language media practice in the Digital EraSurvival strategies in the Digital EraConclusion and suggestionsReferencesThe politics of language and the underdevelopment of African language press in ZimbabweIntroductionLanguage questions in the press and the politics of languageLanguage questions in the press: from colonial to post-independence ZimbabwePolitics of language, language policy and practice in colonial and post-independence ZimbabweThe politics of language and hegemonyThe politics of language and the underdevelopment of African language press in the colonial periodThe politics of language and the underdevelopment of the African language press in post-independence ZimbabweThe politics of language and the management of African language press in ZimbabweThe politics of language, tabloidisation and sustainability of African language newspapersConclusionReferencesII. Mixed bag: Failures and successes of African language newspapersIn the dead end: The decline of the indigenous language press in post-colonial ZimbabweIntroductionThe indigenous language media in Zimbabwe: a literature reviewThe state of the indigenous language press in Zimbabwe: a synopsisTheoretical framework: conceptualising indigenous language newspapers as indigenous public spheresMethodologyFindingsSpeaking and not hearing: the failure of the indigenous language press to connect with their indigenous audienceFailure of the indigenous newspapers to assert themselves on the marketSurvival strategies: the case for indigenous language newspaper grantsIndigenous language press adoption of new technologies for survivalDiscussionConclusionReferencesMaking sense of South African Mmega Dikgang’s transition from Setswana to EnglishIntroductionBackground of Mmega DikgangThe language question and African language press in post-independence South AfricaConceptual frameworkMethodologyFindingsDiscussionConclusionReferencesThe extinction of siSwati-language newspapers in the Kingdom of EswatiniIntroductionCritical political economySalawu’s models of managing indigenous-language newspapersMethodologyHistoriography of indigenous-language newspapersThe emaSwati of EswatiniThe siSwati languageFactors leading to the closure of siSwati-language newspapersIsolezive, the Zulu-language tabloidConclusionReferencesIndigenous language newspapers in Zimbabwe: Kwayedza and Umthunywa and the struggle for survivalIntroductionBackgroundTheoretical frameworkMethodologyFindingsProfitability and distribution of Kwayedza and Umthunywa in schoolsSurvival strategies: exclusivity, marginality, use of audio-visuals and social mediaInclusion of minority languages and educational content as survival strategiesConclusionReferencesIndigenous language media and the survival game: The Alaroye newspaper example from NigeriaIntroductionThe issueThe Alaroye newspaperThe history of indigenous language newspapers in NigeriaMethodologyTheoretical considerationsNiche theoryAlaroye and the survival gameSurvival strategies for keeping Alaroye afloatPromotionDeep, well-researched and popular contentThe drive to learn the Yoruba languageA network of correspondentsFocus on historical and political developmentFuture online publicationSeparation from politickingReduced priceConclusionReferencesIII. Management and sustainability of African language mediaReimagining the future of indigenous language press in the Digital EraIntroductionThe evolution of indigenous language newspapers: the nexus of religion and languageGrassroots mediaRace for survivalPoor patronagePoor capitalisationThe challenge of capacityThe digital media challengeIndigenous language newspapers as a counter-public sphereTechnological determinism theoryImplications of the shift to digital mediaFashioning a new trajectory: opportunities for sustainabilityRecapitalisationPartnershipGovernment subsidiesCrowdfundingInstitutionalised arena for subordinate voicesReimagining the futureConclusionReferencesA survey of the management, organisation, structure, content and columns of the contemporary Yorùbá newspaperIntroductionStructure of the contemporary Yorùbá newspaperContent and columns of the contemporary Yorùbá newspaperConclusionReferencesThe challenges of sustaining African language newspaper businesses: The Yorùbá language example from NigeriaIntroductionYoruba language newspapersContemporary Yoruba newspapersImpacts of Yoruba newspapersChallenges facing Yoruba language newspapers and possible solutionsConclusionReferencesIV. Towards quality: African language journalism developmentThe significance of African storytelling in journalismIntroductionKnowledge is culturalProverbsThe role of language in creating and representing cultureDistinctions – stories, narratives, master narratives and narrative habitusNarrative habitus‘He who is bitten by a snake fears the lizard’ (Ugandan proverb)African cultural storytelling from the perspective of journalism in the Moaaga societyMethodology‘Kibaya’ or ‘koееse’: news or information in MooreStorytellingThe importance of African modes of storytelling in journalismThe dire situation of African language media todayShaping contemporary journalism in the ‘African mode’ of storytellingConclusionNotesBibliographyAfrican language journalism in Ghana and the quest for quality and sustainable broadcast journalism: An investigation of Peace FMIntroductionOverview of Peace FMIndigenous languages, radio and broadcast journalism in GhanaFindingsAfrican language journalism and quality journalism: the paradoxPeace FM and professionalismSustainability of indigenous language broadcasting in GhanaMedia contentFinancial powerProfessionalism and quality journalismConclusion: the quest for quality and sustainable indigenous language journalismNoteReferencesAppendixEditorial policies and the isiXhosa language newspapers at Caxton Media and Independent MediaIntroductionIndigenous language newspapers in South Africa and AfricaTheoretical frameworkMethods of data collectionIsiXhosa publications treated as an afterthoughtThe paradox of the relegation of isiXhosa to a secondary positionConclusionReferenceV. Focus on the broadcast mediaNews syndication and local language broadcasting in South Africa: Hegemonic infiltration or hybridity?IntroductionAfrican language radio broadcasting and syndicationRamifications of syndicationSyndication as hegemonic infiltration: a conceptual frameworkMethodologyContent syndication: empowerment or dis-empowermentPros and cons of syndicated news clips‘Telling it like it is’: enhancing authenticity and credibilityThe resource constraints argumentIndustry dynamics and social changeThe impact of syndicationConclusionNotesReferencesVI. Borrowing a leafAfrican language newspaper sustainability: Lessons to learn from AsiaIntroductionCultural studies: the theoretical underpinningMethodologyAfrican language newspaper circulation and readershipFactors responsible for low circulation and readership of indigenous African language newspapersAsia: also a colonised continentCirculation and readership of local language newspapers in India, Pakistan and BangladeshLessons Africa can learn from Asia in terms of local language pressConclusionReferences

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