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High Density Lipoproteins

PrefaceAcknowledgementI Physiology of HDL Structure of HDL: Particle Subclasses and Molecular ComponentsHDL SubclassesMolecular Components of HDLProteomeLipidomeThe Structure of HDLIntroduction/Brief HistoryHDL in the Test Tube“Real” HDL ParticlesHDL Biogenesis, Remodeling, and CatabolismBiogenesis of HDLATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1)Lecithin/Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT)ApoA-I Mutations May Induce Hypertriglyceridemia and/or HypercholesterolemiaApoE and apoA-IV Participate in the Biogenesis of HDL Particles Containing the Corresponding ProteinsClinical Relevance of the Aberrant HDL PhenotypesRemodeling and Catabolism of HDLATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G1Phospholipid Transfer ProteinapoMHepatic Lipase and Endothelial LipaseCholesteryl Ester Transfer ProteinScavenger Receptor BIRole of Ecto-F1-ATPase/P2Y13 Pathway in Hepatic HDL ClearanceTranscytosis of apoA-I and HDL by Endothelial CellsThe Role of Cubilin in apoA-I and HDL Catabolism by the KidneyHDL SubclassesThe Origin and Metabolism of Preb-HDL SubpopulationsComplexity of HDLSources of FundingRegulation of HDL Genes: Transcriptional, Posttranscriptional, and PosttranslationalRegulation of Genes Involved in HDL Metabolism at the Transcriptional LevelGeneral Introduction to Hormone Nuclear ReceptorsTranscriptional Regulation of the apoA-I Gene in the LiverTranscriptional Regulation of the ABCA1 GeneTranscriptional Regulation of the ABCG1 GeneTranscriptional Regulation of the Apolipoprotein E GeneTranscriptional Regulation of the Human apoM Gene in the LiverTranscriptional Regulation of the CETP GeneTranscriptional Regulation of the PLTP GeneTranscriptional Regulation of the Bile Acid Transporters ABCG5/ABCG8Transcriptional Regulation of the HDL Receptor SR-BIPosttranscriptional Regulation of HDL Genes by Noncoding RNAs and microRNAsmiRNAs: Biogenesis and FunctionPosttranscriptional Modulation of HDL Metabolism by miRNAsPosttranslational Mechanisms of HDL RegulationABCA1ABCG1SR-BICholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol TransportCholesterol Efflux as the First Step of Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT)ABCA1-Mediated Lipid Efflux to Lipid-Poor apoA-ICholesterol Efflux to Lipidated HDLHDL Quality and Cholesterol EffluxRCT in Animal ModelsPhysiologyPharmacologySerum Cholesterol Efflux Capacity (CEC)Functionality of HDL: Antioxidation and Detoxifying EffectsHigh-Density Lipoproteins and Oxidative StressHigh-Density Lipoproteins: Antioxidative FunctionMechanisms of ProtectionHeterogeneity of Antioxidant Activity of HDL ParticlesHigh-Density Lipoproteins, Paraoxonase-1PON1 as an AntioxidantPON1 and Bacterial PathogensHigh-Density Lipoproteins, Environmental Pathogens and ToxinsBacterial PathogensParasitesHepatitis, Dengue and Other VirusesMetal Oxides, Carbon Nanotubes and PLGA NanoparticlesPON1 and OrganophosphatesDetoxification of Plasma and External FluidsSignal Transduction by HDL: Agonists, Receptors, and Signaling CascadesIntroductionApoA-I-Induced Cell Signaling Directly Mediated by ABCA1ApoA-I-Induced Cell Signaling Indirectly Mediated by b-ATPase and P2Y12/13 ADP ReceptorApoA-Iand HDL-Induced Cell Signaling Indirectly Mediated by ABCA1 and/or ABCG1HDL-Induced Cell Signaling Mediated by SR-BIHDL-Induced Cell Signaling Mediated by S1PHDL-Induced Cell Signaling: Future Challenges and OpportunitiesII Pathology of HDLEpidemiology: Disease AssociationsProtective Role of HDL: Evidence from Epidemiological StudiesHDL Cholesterol as a Risk Factor for Atherosclerosis and Its ComplicationsHDL Cholesterol as a Risk Factor for Other DiseasesTotal HDL-C in Various PopulationsTotal HDL-C Modulated by Environmental FactorsHDL-C in Diseases and ConditionsHigh HDL Levels Do Not Add to the ProtectionEffect of HDL on StrokeTime Trends in Total HDL-CAre There Other Biomarkers than the Total HDL-C?HDL FractionsHDL Particle SizeHDL Particle NumberHDL LipidsHDL ApolipoproteinsHDL ProteomicsHDL FunctionPleiotropyFuture Approaches of Epidemiological StudiesBeyond the Genetics of HDL: Why Is HDL Cholesterol Inversely Related to Cardiovascular Disease?GeneralDeterminants of Plasma HDL Cholesterol LevelsEstablished Primary Regulators of Plasma HDL CholesterolEstablished Secondary Regulators of Plasma HDL CholesterolMissing HeritabilityNovel Insight into HDL BiologyDe Novo Synthesis of HDL and HDL BindingHDL Conversion and RemodelingMouse Models of Disturbed HDL MetabolismIntroductionApolipoprotein A-IATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G1Lecithin-Cholesterol AcyltransferasePhospholipid Transfer ProteinScavenger Receptor BIInsights from Intercrossing of the Different Knockout MiceConclusions from the Gene Knockout Mouse StudiesCholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Transgenic MiceDysfunctional HDL: From StructureFunction-Relationships to BiomarkersIntroductionHDL and Reverse Cholesterol TransportMechanisms Under Physiological ConditionsAlterations of the Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of HDL in Cardiovascular DiseaseEffects of HDL on LDL OxidationMechanisms Under Physiological ConditionsImpairment of the Anti-Oxidative Effects of HDL in Patients After Surgery and With Cardiovascular DiseaseEffects of HDL on Endothelial Nitric Oxide BioavailabilityMechanisms Under Physiological ConditionsImpaired HDL Capacity to Stimulate NO Production in Patients with Cardiovascular DiseaseEndothelial Anti-Inflammatory Effects of HDLMechanisms Under Physiological ConditionsImpaired Endothelial Anti-Inflammatory Effects of HDL in Patients with CAD, Diabetes, or Chronic Kidney DysfunctionEffects of HDL on Endothelial Cell Apoptotic PathwaysMechanisms Under Physiological ConditionsImpairment of the Endothelial Anti-Apoptotic Effects of HDL in Patients with Cardiovascular DiseaseHDL Protein Cargo and Prognostic BiomarkersIII Possible Indications and Target Mechanisms of HDL TherapyHDL and Atherothrombotic Vascular DiseaseIntroductionInteractions of HDLs with the EndotheliumPreservation of Endothelial IntegrityPreservation of Endothelial FunctionAnti-inflammatory EffectsSuppression of MyelopoiesisSuppression of Monocyte ExtravasationInterference with Macrophage Differentiation and ActivationEffects of HDLs on Vascular Lipid and Lipoprotein HomeostasisFrom LDL Retention to Atheroma FormationInhibition of LDL Modification by HDLsMacrophage Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol TransportAtherothrombosisEffects of HDLs on Smooth Muscle CellsAntithrombotic Effects of HDLsMyocardial InjuryHDLs, Diabetes, and Metabolic SyndromeType 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic SyndromeLow HDL Cholesterol Levels in Diabetes and Metabolic SyndromeInsulin Resistance, Hypertriglyceridemia, and Decreased HDL Cholesterol LevelsFFAs and Decreased HDL LevelsHDL Metabolism, Subclasses, and CatabolismDoes HDL Play a Causal Role in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes?Effects of HDL on ObesityEffects of HDL on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Utilization by Skeletal MuscleThe Beneficial Effects of HDL in Pancreatic Beta CellsHigh-Density Lipoprotein: Structural and Functional Changes Under Uremic Conditions and the Therapeutic ConsequencesIntroductionChronic Kidney Disease: Epidemiology and PathophysiologyDyslipidemia, Lipid-Modulating Therapy, and Cardiovascular Risk in CKD PatientsDyslipidemia in CKD PatientsLipid-Modulating Therapy in CKD PatientsProtective Effects of HDL on the KidneyStructural and Functional Modifications of HDL in CKD PatientsDysregulation of Proteins in HDL MetabolismChanges of HDL Apolipoproteins (Modifications and Levels)Loss of Protective Proteins or LipidsIncrease of Molecules within HDL with a Fatal Function in the Vascular WallPossibility of Functional Restoration of HDLLaboratory Tests to Measure HDL FunctionImpact of Systemic Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases on apoA-I and HDL Plasma Levels and FunctionsIntroductionHDL/apoA-I Structure and FunctionHDL and apoA-I as Members of the Innate Immune SystemRelationship Between Lipid Raft Modulation and Lymphocyte FunctionModulation of Spinghosine-1-Phosphate (S1P)/ S1P-Receptor Axis and Lymphocyte FunctionInflammatory DiseasesInflammatory Bowel DiseasesVasculitisPsoriasisAutoimmune Diseases: The Role of AutoantibodiesSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)Impact of Anti-inflammatory TreatmentsHDL in Infectious Diseases and SepsisIntroductionHDL and Bacterial InfectionsInteraction of HDL with LPS and Gram-Negative BacteriaInteraction of HDL with LTA and Gram-Positive BacteriaHDL and MycobacteriaGeneral Innate Host Defense Mechanisms Exerted by HDL After Bacterial InfectionHDL and Parasitic InfectionsHDL and Viral InfectionsHIV InfectionHCV InfectionHigh-Density Lipoproteins in StrokeIntroductionPleiotropic Effects of HDLsHDL Potential Effects on the Blood–Brain BarrierReconstituted HDLs and HDL Mimetics: Pleiotropic Effects of HDLs—In Vitro and In Vivo DataHDLs and Nitric Oxide (NO)HDLs and Sphingosine 1-PhosphateAntioxidative StressAnti-inflammatory and Antiprotease PropertiesEndothelial Cell Integrity, EPCs and Antiapoptotic ActionAntithrombotic ActionsHDLs in the Cerebral CompartmentLipoproteins in the BrainPlasma HDLs in the Brain: HDLs and Acute Stroke (In Vivo Data)HDLs and Acute Stroke: Experimental ModelsTherapeutic Potential of HDL in Cardioprotection and Tissue RepairIntroductionIn Vitro Effects of HDL on CardiomyocytesEffects of HDL in Rat Neonatal CardiomyocytesAdult Mouse CardiomyocytesApo A-I and Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Mediate the Cytoprotective Effects of HDLHDL Confer Protection Against Ischaemia Reperfusion InjuryIRI in the Isolated Heart ModelIRI in In Vivo ModelsApo A-I and S1P Confer Cardioprotective Effects on HDLHuman Apo A-I Gene Transfer Attenuates Diabetic CardiomyopathyHuman Apo A-I Gene Transfer Influences Metabolic Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes MellitusHuman Apo A-I Gene Transfer Attenuates DiabetesAssociated Oxidative Stress, Cardiac Fibrosis,Human Apo A-I Gene Transfer Reduces Diabetes-Induced Cardiac InflammationHuman Apo A-I Gene Transfer Reduces Diabetes-Associated Cardiac Apoptosis and Improves the Cardiac Endothelial IntegrityHDL and Tissue Repair: Modulation of EPC Biology via SR-BIDevelopment of Topical HDL Therapy for Cutaneous Wound HealingBeneficial Effects of Selective HDL-Raising Gene Transfer on Cardiac Remodelling and Cardiac Function After Myocardial Infarction in MiceIV Treatments for Dyslipidemias and Dysfunction of HDLHDL and Lifestyle InterventionsHDL and DietEffects of Substituting Dietary Saturated Fatty AcidsDietary MUFAn-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty AcidsCarbohydrate and Extrinsic SugarsEffects of Dietary Fatty Acids and Cholesterol on HDL FunctionWeight LossImpact of Adiposity on HDL Concentration and FunctionEffect of Weight-Loss Therapies on HDL Concentration and FunctionEffects of Regular Aerobic ExerciseEffects of Exercise on HDLEffects of Exercise on Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic RiskSmoking CessationSmoking and HDL-C ConcentrationPotential Mechanisms for the Smoking-Related Reduction in HDL-CSmoking Cessation Intervention to Increase Plasma HDL ConcentrationEffects of Alcohol on HDL and Cardiovascular RiskAlcohol Intake and HDL-CEffects of Alcohol on HDL Atheroprotective FunctionsEffects of Established Hypolipidemic Drugs on HDL Concentration, Subclass Distribution, and FunctionEffects on Plasma HDL-C ConcentrationStatinsFibratesNiacinEffects on HDL Subclass DistributionStatinsFibratesNiacinEffects on Cholesterol Efflux CapacityStatinsFibratesNiacinEffect on HDL Ability to Preserve Endothelial Cell HomeostasisStatinsFibratesNiacinEffect on HDL Antioxidant PropertiesStatinsFibratesNiacinEmerging Small Molecule DrugsIntroductionCholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein InhibitorsBiological MechanismsCurrent StateFuture PerspectivesNovel PPAR AgonistsBiological MechanismsCurrent StateFuture PerspectivesNovel LXR AgonistsBiological MechanismsCurrent StateFuture PerspectivesRVX-208Biological MechanismsCurrent StateApoA-I MimeticsIntroductionApoA-I Mimetic PeptidesFFFX-5AATI-5261ETC-642ApoA-I-Based Infusion TherapyHDL-VHDL InfusionsPurified ApoA-I InfusionsCSL-111 and CSL-112 InfusionsCER-001 InfusionsModified ApoA-ISelective DelipidationAntisense Oligonucleotides, microRNAs, and AntibodiesAntisense OligonucleotidesMaking Sense of AntisenseTherapeutic Antisense Oligonucleotides to Treat DyslipidemiaTherapeutic Antisense Oligonucleotides for the Increase of HDL-Cholesterol Levels and Improvement of HDL FunctionmiRNAsmiRNA-Based TherapyMicromanaging Cholesterol Efflux, RCT, HDL Levels, and HDL FunctionAntibodiesLDL-Cholesterol Lowering Approaches: Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Blocking AntibodiesApproaches to Antibody Therapy for the Increase of HDLCholesterol LevelsEffect of Antibodies Used for the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases on HDL Antiatherogenic FunctionsVaccines Against Atherosclerosis
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