Desktop version

Home arrow Travel

  • Increase font
  • Decrease font

<<   CONTENTS   >>

Globalization and tourism marketing

Globalization effects on tourism marketing in Bangladesh

Md. Sohel Rana, Muhammad Khalilur Rahman, Mohammad Fakhrul Islam and Azizul Hassan


Globalization is a web that connects people across geographical limitations through the means of economics, technology, politics, tourism, trade, transactions and so on. Over the years, the buzzword of globalization has become a controversial subject because of its nature of bringing more openness in many diversified areas. However, globalization has created numerous opportunities for many nations to grow faster, taking a competitive advantage. Every country is rigorously putting its best effort to internationalize its domestic products and services according to the demand from the global market. The globalization process has also facilitated the movement of people from one country to another for multiple reasons. Recently, tourism is one of the dynamic service sectors that has been contributing largely to the national economies of many countries. Globalization and tourism have a deep connection with each other. Globalization has made tourism spread beyond the national borders. The tourism sector is not just involved in the movement of people across the borders but it facilitates capital flows from one country to another, cultural flows, political collaboration, free flow of ideas and education, healthcare facilities and many implications on our social and human lives including environmental pollutions, criminal behaviour, diseases and terrorist activities (Hjalager, 2007). The contribution of tourism in any country’s economic development is huge and tourism is considered and recognized as a source of economic growth and development (Brida and Risso, 2009; Seetanah, 2011).

Ivanov and Webster (2013) have identified that globalization has a stimulus impact on inbound tourism, which significantly contributes to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). However, a previous study conducted by Ivanov (2005) has identified that tourism may also create leakages in GDP since many organizations will tend to import goods and services from foreign countries for the quality consumption of the tourists during their stay in the host countries. Hence, many countries are focusing on globalizing their tourism sector through a number of contracts and agreements bilaterally and multilaterally among the different countries around the world. The globalization of the tourism industry of a country may require undergoing an irrevocable globalizing process and a set of activities that depends on manifold communication among the countries. For example, there remain many issues that require countries to sort out how the limitations of outsourcing, transnational ownership structures, cross-border marketing collaboration and investment and so on will be resolved and implemented. Many scholars and academics have studied in the field of tourism and discussed the impacts of globalization upon tourism industries (Ivanov and Webster, 2013; Scheyvens, 2011). Bangladesh has been emerging as a developing nation which has attracted many people around the world as a surprising land in the South Asian region. Consequently, Bangladesh should take this as an opportunity to promote its historical, traditional and cultural heritage throughout the world to make a long-lasting impression about beautiful Bangladesh. However, before drawing any policy framework for Bangladesh it is important to understand how the global tourism sector has been attracting people in different parts of the world. The understanding of a global overview of tourism will help set an effective tourism framework for Bangladesh on the global stage.

Overview of global tourism

Tourism has been developed into a global phenomenon. Global tourism has contributed to the economic sectors widely and social activities in the current era. It contributes around 5% of the world’s GDP. Global tourism is a key export sector for many developing and developed counties. According to World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) (2019), international tourist arrivals worldwide arc estimated to increase an average of 3.9% a year during the period between 1995 and 2010. However, international tourism arrivals are slackening down gradually from 3.8% in 2011 and it is predicted that it will be 2.5% in 2030 (see Figure 10.1) due to the higher base volume, lower GDP growth, low elasticity of travel to GDP and shift from falling transport costs to increased ones.

Based on Figure 10.1, international tourist arrivals in the world will increase by 43 million a year on average between 2010 and 2030. It is crucial to consider all estimates presented here in complete terms, rather than just in terms of an average annual growth rate (UNWTO, 2018). As the base volume is increasing, a lower step of increase still indicates a greater growth in total members. The increase rate between 2010 and 2030 signifies an increase of 43 million global tourist arrivals a year compared to an increase of 28 million in 1995-2010 (UNWTO, 2019). This growth of 43 million is equivalent to the absolute international tourist arrivals in a major destination.

According to the report of UNWTO (2018), international tourist arrivals increased by 6% to 1.4 billion in 2018. International tourist arrivals in Europe were 672 million in 2018, whereas Asia and the Pacific recorded 323 million, America 211 million, Africa estimated 63 million arrivals and the Middle East showed 58 million international tourist arrivals (UNWTO, 2018).

International tourist arrivals change over the previous year (millions) Source

Figure 10.1 International tourist arrivals change over the previous year (millions) Source: UNWTO, 2019

A brief historical background of tourism in Bangladesh

Bangladesh came into being as an independent country in the global map in 1971 through a bloody war that lingered for nine months against what was then West Pakistan. The pride of the nation glorified several times when the great leader of the country, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, took the responsibility to reconstruct the war-ravaged country and started to take developing initiatives. Geographically Bangladesh is situated at the northeastern part of South Asia and lies between 20°34' and 26°36' north latitude and 88°01' and 92°41' east longitude (Bangladesh Tourism, 2009). Meanwhile, the major parts of Himalayas lie at the northern belt and the southern part of Bangladesh is widely surrounded by the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh entitles to about 147,570 square kilometres of low-lying alluvial and plain land which is blessed by numerous rivers crisscrossed from the north to the south and cast to the west. Bangladesh is a blessed country where people of diversified races, languages, cultures and religions find themselves peaceful and happy living with each other. The majority arc Muslims, but they are harmonious and sympathetic to the people of other religions like Hindus, Christians and Buddhists that gives a unique cultural integration in the peoples’ livelihoods which is vividly reflected in their behavioural traits.

Bengal once was regarded as one of the affluent and enriched regions until the 16th century in the subcontinent. Due to its wealth and alluvial land, Bengal was a cherished land to occupy for many empires. For example, the great warrior Mohmmad Bakhtiar Khalzhi from Turkistan captured Bengal with only 20 men

(Bangladesh Tourism, 2009). Subsequently, many traders came to this land and started reigning different parts of Bengal. In the early 16th century, the Europeans started to come through the Bay of Bengal and set up their trading posts. However, eventually the British started to rule the country as a part of British India and ruled over 200 years until 1947 (Bangladesh Tourism, 2009). During the Pakistan regime Bangladesh remained underdeveloped and continuously overlooked from many developing activities.

After the independence of Bangladesh, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman initiated to establish Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC) by Presidential Order 143 in 1972. The purpose of the ordinance was to develop tourism and hospitality facilities across the country, create a positive image about the country, generate employment opportunities, establish tourism institutions and tourism parks and to establish foreign liaison (Daily Sun, 2017). However, the government of Bangladesh took initiatives to reform the national tourism policy in 2010 aiming to create employment opportunities, contribute to the national economic development and ensure environmental sustainability (Alam et al., 2009). Since Bangladesh contains a rich historical background and diversified cultural harmony, the country attracts many tourists to visit the archaeological sites, historical mosques, monument, resorts, beaches, rivers, dams, forests, tribal peoples’ livelihoods and diverse wildlife. Bangladesh has immense potential in the field of tourism development due to its geographical location, cultural integration and natural resources. This particular sector has been showing possible contribution to economic growth, employment generation and marginal and infrastructural development. Therefore, effective policy planning is badly needed to make the tourism sector viable economically in Bangladesh.

This chapter focuses on exploring globalization factors that may affect tourism marketing of Bangladesh. Subsequently, the second section of the chapter discusses globalization factors, tourism marketing plans, cross-border marketing collaboration, outsourcing transnational ownership, foreign representation, digital connectivity, data security, transport networks and challenges of global tourism marketing. The third section shows methodological approaches including data collection and data analysis. The fourth section of the chapter discusses the results of the study and finally the chapter concludes with the policy implications for global tourism marketing and conclusion remarks.

Literature review

Globalization factors affecting tourism in Bangladesh

The natural beauty of Bangladesh consists of beaches, rivers, coasts, religious places, mosques, pagodas, waterfalls, hills, forests and tea gardens. The historical Mosque City of Bagerhat, the Sunderbans and the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur are the major heritage sites in the county. Many international and local tourists visit the country’s tourist attraction sites to look at the beauty of nature of this country. Bangladesh can be a prime tourism destination in the world if the

Globalization effects on tourism marketing 161 government concentrates on what is required for tourist attractions. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) reported that the travel and tourism industry has contributed $5.3 billion, which is approximately (2.2%) of the total GDP in the country in 2017 and it is expected to rise 6.8% per year to $5.7 billion in 2028 (Dhaka Tribune, 2018; The Financial Express, 2019). Every year a greater number of tourists come to Bangladesh to sightsee and enjoy its natural beauty. However, due to some limitations, the country has tailed to introduce itself as a tourism destination country in the world. But it is assumed that the country can be one of the top tourist attraction destinations in the world soon (Roy and Roy, 2015). The Financial Express (2019) reported that the country’s growth in the tourism industry has a significant impact on the development of rural communities. The tourism industry in Bangladesh is increasingly driven by micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) particularly in the region-based hotels, restaurants, recreational activities and tour operators.

There arc many types of tourism in the country that attract people to travel to the country’s destinations. Domestic tourism involves residents travelling within the country. International tourism involves inbound and outbound tourism. However, inbound tourism involves non-residents visiting within the country whereas outbound tourism comprises residents travelling within another country. Based on these purposes of travel, tourism in Bangladesh can be classified into mainly leisure tourism, religious tourism, family tourism, health tourism, sports tourism, educational tourism and business tourism, which may attract both domestic and international tourists.

Tourism marketing plans at global stages

The global tourism marketing poses a huge potential. It generates more than $1.3 trillion in revenue per year. In 2019, digital travel sales are set to reach $755 billion (Digital Marketing Institute, 2019). The tourism and travel sector are competitive. Thus, brands must use new technological marketing strategies to stand out. There are five major key strategies for making travel and tourism marketing successful at the global stages: put the target audience front and centre, utilize all aspects of social media, identify key moments on the booking journey, know which devices they use and when and welcome social proof (tourists are routinely using review sites such as Google, TripAdvisor, and Yelp to guide their buying decisions). Hjalager’s (2007) study explains the various indicators of globalization of the tourism marketing industry and indicates that it has huge business potential in the globalization process, for instance, investments, outsourcing, marketing collaborations, multinational ownership structure, selling and purchasing knowledge. The free movement of labour developments is not only confined to manufacturing sectors but also very much relevant for the modernization of tourism.

The ASEAN region has been successful in attracting new tourists. The success is well illustrated in Table 10.1, which reveals that some countries experienced significant growth between the years 2009 and 2010.

162 Rana, Rahman, Islam and Hassan

Table 10.1 Growth of international visitor arrival 2009-2010


Member Country



Growth (%)


Brunei Darussalam













































Viet Nam








Source: ASEAN, 2019

Cross-border marketing collaboration

The globalization process not only facilitates economic growth, expansion of trades and businesses, development of a global communication system and rapid technological advancement but also accelerates cross-border collaboration in different fields. Tourism is such a sector which is known as a hyper-globalizer ( Held et al., 1999), and that demands global communication and collaboration to attract tourists around the world. Hence, tourism enterprises in different countries must seek international marketing collaboration to sell their tourism market positions and brand expansions by import and export of tourism business concepts through franchising and licensing which require flexible human resourcing and enhancing of the international labour market (Hjalager, 2007). The tourism market consists of a large number of small firms which are characterized and influenced by a large number of individuals’ purchasing decisions. In such circumstances, joint marketing can provide the best advantages for both the small tourism firms and tourists, since it has been proved that joint marketing campaigns have been an effective part of promotion over the years (Middleton, 1988). Tourism marketing campaigns are mostly destination-based and often seek collaboration from regional associations, whose marketing activities are sometimes partly publicly financed. However, there remains a number of privately financed marketing collaborations (Hjalager, 2007). Nevertheless, joint venture marketing collaborations are relatively cost-effective initiatives. Cross-border marketing collaboration not only conducts joint venture marketing but it also shares knowledge, culture, know-how and technologies to attract potential tourists of the world at low cost. Sometimes meetings, incentives, conferences and events like tourism fairs are organized in a professional and specialized manner which create new categories of agents that offer promotional services to the enterprises (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2001). Hence, cross-border marketing collaboration is a potential promotional initiative that equips a country with required competencies, capacities and interlinkages to become a successful tourism campaigner at the global stage.

Outsourcing transnational ownership

For a long time, tourism business owners have invested in foreign countries (Johanson, and Vahlne, 1977). Globalization not only connects one nation to another, but it also transfers ideas, resources, capital, manpower and many productive elements across the geographical boundaries. As mentioned previously, the tourism sector is greatly influenced by the globalization process. The resourceful countries get the opportunities to invest in some of the countries where tourism is attractive to the people around the world and has potential. In such circumstances, the host country’s individual firms or tourism destinations may embrace globalization in different stages through controlling costs, gaining market shares and competencies and gaining access to the important resources, international tourism networks and so on (Hjalager, 2007). In the meantime, global tourism companies willing to invest in the host countries go through local rules regulations, government policies in utilizing local resources, taxes, share of ownership, infrastructures, communication technologies, transportation opportunities and so on scrupulously (Hjalager, 2007). Lately, Bangladesh has been much opened for foreign investors. The government has taken a long-term plan to brand the tourism sector in Bangladesh. Hence, the development of infrastructure and institutional restructure should be put in place to grab the global opportunities to make the tourism sector thrive seamlessly. Foreign investment through transnational ownership opens up new markets for the products of the host country and the raw materials and physical assets are manoeuvred in a controlled manner (Hjalager, 2007). Investment in the tourism business may come in diversified forms. For example, in the early 1960s and '70s, hotel capacity was given much importance and the tour operators invested heavily in this segment and thus they made them resourceful, not just dependent on local players. Investment from northern Europe particularly concentrated on hotels in metropolitan areas which incurred high expenses and generated low earnings. On the other hand, when ownership was just kept solely in the hands of the host country, it may have larger implication on missing out on global market access, know-how and diversified business integration. In recent years, tour operators and travel agencies have intensive experience of mergers and acquisition (Cavlek, 2000). Therefore, making arrangements for transnational ownership will facilitate tourism marketing at the global arena.

Tourism board representation inforeign countries

The branding of the tourism sector of any country follows certain courses of action in the national and international arena. When it comes to global tourism marketing, host countries should build tourism stations in different parts of the world from where the interested tourists may easily get information about the diversified tourism services that the host country is offering to the global citizen. Establishing tourism board representation in foreign countries is an effective initiative to uphold the country’s tourism sector in a trustworthy manner. Tourism has the nature to flow internationally, therefore it is essential to establish the brand value of any country’s tourism and get global recognition in the international arena. With this view, the host country can trigger efforts to market the products and tourism services jointly with other countries to reap maximum benefits (Mitchell and Orwig, 2002). Joint venture marketing can be facilitated through the tourism representation in foreign countries.

Integration of digital connectivity and data security

The tourism sector of any country can be effectively promoted through digital connectivity. The recent advancement of technology offers a great opportunity for the tourism industry. Lately, people around the world have placed their trust in technology and consider digital online sources like smartphones, online digital apps, wearables, digital payment methods and so on as potential avenues to be motivated for planning their trips to the different parts of the world (PATA and Oxford Economics, 2018). The report further mentions that 62% to 92% of travel is researched and booked through online applications. The countries included in this range of online digital travel arc Vietnam, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, New Zealand, Hong Kong SAR, Republic of Korea, Chinese Taipei, the Philippines and Japan (PATA and Oxford Economics, 2018). In the meantime, since the internet-based digital connectivity highway is opened for all, smaller tourism enterprises and business can take advantage of these benefits and compete potentially with the big tourism market players. Now, tourists can share their experiences in social media, which has a magnificent impact on tourism promotion for any destination. However, digital connectivity also poses challenges like data management skills, online scams, online payment problems and data protection of the tourists. Bangladesh has been focusing much on the digitalization of services in diversified sectors in recent years, which opens potential avenues for the tourism industry to promote this growing industry throughout the world. The tour and travel industry can greatly be transformed by the digital platforms since recently travellers have been booking airlines tickets and hotels online. Hence, tourism businesses in Bangladesh should integrate digital services in their regular marketing approaches where tourists can receive services from the far end and they can share their experiences in blogs and social media recommending and promoting tourism for prospective tourists who may intend to pay a visit to Bangladesh.

Integrated transport network

Tourism marketing in the globalization process demands an easy and integrated transportation network where tourists find it convenient and comfortable moving from one destination to another. An organized and integrated transport network promotes the tourism industry to grow quickly and exponentially. It is important to combine air, rail, roads and water transportation systems in an effective network where tourists can be attracted and offered convenient travelling from the

Globalization effects on tourism marketing 165 beginning until the end of the trip. The tourism sector has been growing rapidly throughout the globe and countries are developing local and international transportation networks to ensure quick congregation and evacuation of travellers through easing access to travel documents and transportation. The globalization process has quickened the movement of the people from one country to another, consequently transportation networks have been widened. The development of integrated transportation networks will facilitate the accessibility of tourists in different destinations. For example, the direct link of the tourists’ origin to the desired destination will improve connectivity and minimize the cost of travelling significantly (Van Truong and Shimizu, 2017). The authors further argue that transportation is not merely the main factor that links the demand (origin) and supply (destination) sides of the tourism industry but it is one of the important factors that determine the attractiveness of the destination and thereby influences the demand side (Van Truong and Shimizu, 2017). However, transportation, attractions, services, information and promotions available at the destination influence tourism marketing significantly at the global stage.

Challenges of global tourism marketing

The globalization process not only encourages growth, expansion and benefits, it also triggers many challenges for this growing sector; especially when a small tourism and travel operator strives to attract tourists from the global domain, they face numerous challenges (e.g. lack of brand awareness, the decline of high street travel agents, social media and reputation management, trust, lack of popularity of sharing economies and peer-to-peer travel) in global tourism marketing. The tourism industry is challenged with intense global competition in designing tourism packages that offer the average tourists or travellers something that they have never experienced before. Besides, the tourism sector is challenged due to having high taxation. For example, a traveller has to pay taxes for air tickets and hotel bookings. However, in Bangladesh the airport tax is relatively higher, consequently, the air tickets become expensive for tourists which often works as an influencing factor in destination selection by tourists from different parts of the world (Elite Asia Marketing Team, 2017). Infrastructural development is another challenge faced by the host country. However, when it comes to improving infrastructure including technological advancement by a developing nation like Bangladesh (Rahman, 2016), the country needs to search for international funding sources which subsequently make it costlier for the travellers to afford services during their visit. Global tourism marketing faces another challenge of harmonizing cultural tourism aspects with the key enabling technologies. For example, the harmonization between the long-vested historical and cultural heritage with internet of things, big data, blockchain, artificial intelligence, virtual reality and augmented reality' (Peceny et al., 2019). The branding of tourism Bangladesh has proved to be another challenge since it does not wholly reflect the tourist attractions of the country (Howladar, 2012). For nation branding, like “Incredible India” and “Truly Malaysia”, Bangladesh should rethink the effectiveness andreflection of the nation in tourism branding. Extreme events such as terrorism or political vulnerability have a negative impact on demand and supply of tourism (Richter, and Waugh, 1986; Ryan, 1993). Feeling unsafe in Bangladesh is a great barrier that discourages not only foreign but also local tourists (Quader, 2008). Political and terrorism violence in Bangladesh have created a bad country image internationally. In the meantime, diversification is a big challenge for Bangladeshi tourism. Bangladesh is only relying on traditional mode of tourism, but our competitors like India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia build health tourism, education tourism, religious tourism, halal tourism, business tourism and sports tourism effectively. To promote Bangladesh as a tourist destination, every window of possibility needs consideration.


Literature search and interview method have been used for the identification and investigation of the globalization effects of tourism marketing in this study. This study is qualitative in nature through the search information from Emerald and Google Scholar database and the interview was conducted with tourism operators including the ministry of tourism in Bangladesh. Open-ended questionnaires were used to gather information from the respondents. The information was gathered from the three interviews with a representative from tourism operators at Dhaka city in Bangladesh. In this context, since this study is related to finding the globalization effects of tourism marketing in Bangladesh, the study attempted to obtain the appropriate information from the respective experts from the tourism board authority who could give policy-related insights in tourism marketing initiative in the globalization process. The researchers also collected documents from these authorities related to the study and analysed accordingly. Data were gathered about global tourism, historical background of tourism in Bangladesh, global factors affecting tourism in Bangladesh, tourism marketing plans at the global stages, cross-border marketing collaboration, outsourcing, tourism representation, digital connectivity, tourism information security, transport networking and global tourism challenges and further analysed thematically.

Discussion and policy guidance for tourism marketing in Bangladesh

This chapter discusses the globalization effect of tourism marketing in Bangladesh. With this view to understand how globalization matters to promoting the tourism sector of Bangladesh on the global stage, this chapter meticulously analyses the present context of global tourism, tourism sector requirements to enter the global arena, challenges for global tourism marketing and so on. From the experts’ opinions and documents collected from the tourism authorities in Bangladesh, this chapter briefly discusses some policies that will help promote the tourism sector of Bangladesh globally. Bangladesh is geographically a small country but lately it is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. Being a growing economy, Bangladesh is testing every possibility to reap economic benefits from prospective sectors including tourism. As a result, the government of Bangladesh has been taking long-term planning for the sustainability of the tourism sector. However, a huge amount of effort needs to be put in place to promote Bangladesh tourism at the global stage. As one of the tourism experts (Chief Executive Officer, Bangladesh Tourism Board) has opined during the interview.

We are way behind other countries in promoting our tourism products and services for not having proper policy framework at this very stage. On the other hand, the government is trying to develop required infrastructure to make this sector a real contributor to economic progression. Nevertheless, we arc trying our level best to take the tourism sector of Bangladesh at the global stage and with this motto we all are working together and signing new agreements with other countries of the world so that our tourism sector get easy access to the prospective tourists.

However, this chapter as comes up with a set of strategic actions that will play a vital role in developing a marketing strategy with regards to meet the overall objectives of the tourism industry. Figure 10.2 explains the process of developing this strategy.

summarizes the entire situation that the tourism of Bangladesh needs to take into account to promote this sector globally

Figure 10.2 summarizes the entire situation that the tourism of Bangladesh needs to take into account to promote this sector globally. Moreover, this sector needs to acquire a certain level of competence to absorb the global heat of competition. The country should also devise strategies to mitigate challenges which are the blockade for tourism promotion. Meanwhile, the government should take initiatives to ensure a pool of skilled human resources in this particular sector. Moreover, the government should give incentives to invest in tourism business. Foreign investment in tourism businesses should be welcomed providing full-fledged national and local administrative support. Taxation policies (airlines taxes, hotel taxes, transportation and services taxes etc.) related to tourism businesses must be revised to attract more new tourists in the country. It is important for the tourism industry in Bangladesh to organize and participate in more international tourism fairs where the country’s tourism brand can strongly be upheld and represented. The tourism board of Bangladesh must send representatives to the foreign countries and simultaneously accomplish cross-border agreements which will ensure the flow of tourists in the country. However, at the same time, there are a number of major trends and forces that will have an impact on tourism in the global over the next five years, which recognizes three key areas for research and analysis that are illustrated in Figure 10.3.

Therefore, Bangladesh should get ready and prepare advance strategies to deal with these emerging trends that will have a big impact on future marketing, advertising and distribution which will further influence visitors’ motivation and behaviour.


Tourism is not only a potential economic generator but also promotes a country’s image, culture and supremacy on the global stage. The tourism sector is widely known as a “hyper-globalizer”, which has created dominance in the major political, economic and cultural spectrums and established a substantial people-to-people connection. Bangladesh has been emerging as a developing nation which has attracted many people around the world as a surprising land in the South Asian region which has opened wide avenues to promote its historical, traditional and cultural heritage throughout the world to make a long-lasting impression about beautiful Bangladesh. Therefore, this chapter aimed to look for strategies and policy frameworks to promote tourism in the globalization process. Through the extensive literature review, document analysis and expert opinion from the tourism board authority', it is apparent that Bangladesh has been challenged along many dimensions in promoting tourism marketing in the globalization process. However, the government of Bangladesh has taken longterm policies to develop the tourism sector to gain economic benefits in the coming years. The predominant factors identified for the promotion of global tourism marketing include transportation, sophisticated technologies, digital transaction development, development of skilful human resources, ease of foreign investment, providing incentives to local and foreign tourism businesses, reduction of exorbitant taxation in tourism activities, social and economic security of tourists and tourism-related firms, representatives in the foreign countries and simultaneously' accomplish cross-border agreements and so on. Considering all these predominant factors of tourism marketing in the globalization process, this chapter offers to overcome challenges and accomplishment of these predominant factors that will help promote Bangladesh tourism at the global stage through the framework of a strategy' development process. This chapter further has pointed out future global emerging trends and forces that may have a significant impact on tourists’ motivation and behaviour. Therefore, a country like Bangladesh should get ready and equipped to face emerging challenges in this dynamic sector.


Alam, G. M., Hoquc, K. E., Khalifa, M. T. B., Siraj, S. B. and Ghani, M. F. B. A. (2009). The role of agriculture education and training on agriculture economics and national development of Bangladesh. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(12), pp. 1334-1350.

ASEAN (2019). ASEAN tourism marketing strategy. Retrieved from: https://bit. ly/37GC0Kj (accessed: the 24th November 2019).

Bangladesh Tourism (2009). History of Bangladesh. Retrieved from: https://bit. ly/2DgzYma (accessed: the 24th November 2019).

Brida, J. G. and Risso, W. A. (2009). Tourism as a factor of long-run economic growth: An empirical analysis for Chile. European Journal of Tourism Research, 2(2), pp. 178-185.

Cavlek, N. (2000). The role of tour operators in the travel distribution system. In W. Gartner and D. W. Lime (eds.), Trends in outdoor recreation, leisure and tourism. Oxfordshire: CABI, pp. 325-334.

Daily Sun (2017). Bangladesh tourism: A short historical perception. Retrieved from: (accessed: the 11th November 2019).

Dhaka Tribune. (2018). Expert: Bangladesh can be Asia’s prime tourist destination. Retrieved from: (accessed: the 24th November 2019).

Digital Marketing Institute (2019). 11 digital marketing campaign tips for the tourism sector (part i). Retrieved from: (accessed: the 24th November 2019).

Elite Asia Marketing Team (2017). Retrieved from: https://resources.elitetranslations. asia/2017/08/29/challcnges-confronting-travel-industry/

Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. and Perraton, J. (1999). Global transformations: Politics, economics and culture. Stanford, MA: Stanford University Press.

Hjalagcr, A. M. (2007). Stages in the economic globalization of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(2), pp. 437-457.

Howladar, Z. H. (2012). Tourism in Bangladesh: Problems and prospects. Retrieved from: (accessed: the 24th November 2019).

Ivanov, S. H. (2005). Measurement of the macroeconomic impacts of tourism. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Varna: University of Economics.

Ivanov, S. H. and Webster, C. (2013). Tourism’s impact on growth: The role of globalisation. Annals of Tourism Research, 41, pp. 231-236.

Johanson, J. and Vahlnc, J. E. (1977). The internationalization process of the firm - a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1), pp. 23-32.

Middleton, V. T. C. (1988). Marketing in travel and tourism. Oxfordshire: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Mitchell, M. A. and Orwig, R. A. (2002). Consumer experience tourism and brand bonding. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 11(1), pp. 30-41.

PATA and Oxford Economics (2018). Data and digital platforms: Driving tourism growth in Asia Pacific. Retrieved from: > craft>TE_ APAC-Data-Digital-Platforms-2018 (accessed: the 24th November 2019).

Peccny, U. S., Urbancic, J., Mokorel, S., Kuralt, V. and Ilijas, T. (2019). Tourism 4.0: Challenges in marketing a paradigm shift. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/ USER/Downloads/65836.pdf (accessed: the 11th November 2019).

Quader, S. B. (2008). A land with potential in tourism. Retrieved from: www. (accessed: the 11th November 2019).

Rahman, M. T. (2016). Impacts of social branding on tourism business: The case of Bangladesh. World Review of Business Research, 6(2), pp. 58-65.

Richter, L. K. and Waugh, Jr. W. L. (1986). Tourism politics and political science: A case of not so benign neglect. Annals of Tourism Research, 10, pp. 313-315.

Roy, S. C. and Roy, M. (2015). Tourism in Bangladesh: Present status and future prospects. International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration, 1(8), pp. 53-61.

Ryan, C. (1993). Crime, violence, terrorism and tourism: An accidental or intrinsic relationship? Tourism Management, 14, pp. 173-192.

Scheyvens, R. (2011). Tourism and poverty. New York, NY: Routledge.

Scetanah, B. (2011). Assessing the dynamic economic impact of tourism for island economies. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(1), pp. 291-308.

Swarbrooke, J. and Horner, S. (2001). Business travel and tourism. Oxfordshire: Butterworth-Heinemann.

The Financial Express (2019). Tapping tourism potential crucial to BD economy: USAID. Retrieved from: (accessed: the 11th November 2019).

UNWTO (2018). Tourism towards 2030: Global overview. Retrieved from: https:// (accessed: the 11th November 2019).

UNWTO (2019). International tourist arrivals reach 1.4 billion two years ahead of'forecasts. Retrieved from: (accessed: the 24th November 2019).

Van Truong, N. and Shimizu, T. (2017). The effect of transportation on tourism promotion: Literature review on application of the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model. Transportation Research Procedia, 25, pp. 3096-3115.

<<   CONTENTS   >>

Related topics