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Tourism marketing and green products

Environmental marketing: Tourists’ purchase behaviour response on green products

Md. Nekmahmud


Environmental concerns have been increasing steadily since the early 1970s (Dunlap, 1991; Caldwell, 1991) and increasing attention has been placed on the interface between society and the natural environment, including the importance of environmental consciousness as a factor that can influence human behaviour (Dunlap and Catton, 1979). Nowadays, people like to travel and spend their time with natural beauty’. Thus, the tourism industry is rapidly' growing and is the largest industry in the modern business world and one of the main international trade categories. Every country has focused on their tourism industry to attract both domestic and foreign tourists. Bangladesh as a developing country' faces the challenges of globalization. It has beautiful sights and historical places which are able to get the attention of international tourists. Bangladesh has archaeological, natural, ecological, cultural and other tourism products to attract tourists. Therefore, Bangladesh has ample opportunity' to become a tourist nation. Tourism, mostly' a service industry, is more labor-oriented than other sectors of production in Bangladesh. Tourism development is seen as a way of improving a country’s economy and social wellbeing (Meier and Ham, 2012).

While the travel and tourism sector accounted for 10.4% of global GDP and 9.9% of global employment in 2017, the contributions of this sector in Bangladesh are 4.3% of GDP and 3.8% of total employment (World Travel and Tourism Council [WTTC], 2018). Although this scenario is a positive development compared to the past, the global scenario suggests that the country is yet to realize its full potential. According to the World Tourism Organization (2017), globally, the tourism industry' is ranked third in the world for export goods and services, contributing to 7% of the world’s exports.

Environmental concern on sustainability and climate change has increased dramatically' in the past decade and is affecting the way’ consumers behave. This change has led to a greater focus on green consumerism, and for the tourism industry, a greater interest in green tourism (Bergin-Seers and Mair, 2009). Green consumerism is one kind of behaviour that exists in different industries and markets. The introduction of green products and green consumerism influenced practitioners and researchers to study consumers’ motives behind their green behaviour.

A supplementary strategy focused on making environment-friendly goods more affordable and more proficient and included more financial incentives (e.g. Van Vugt et al., 1995). In addition, motives that are more socially oriented are useful influencers of consumers’ propensity to be green (Van Vugt, 2009) as these activate consumers’ social, reputational and status-oriented perspectives.

Consumers are conscious of the huge effect that their purchasing behaviour has on the environment (Wahid et al., 2011). Consumers have started to develop an environmental consciousness in every market and industry for example in the restaurant industry (Laroche et al., 2001). In recent years, environmental friendly tourism products and services are the most important issues in the tourist industry in both developed and developing countries. Tourism is a potential industry in Bangladesh. Nowadays, Bangladeshi and foreign tourists are very conscious of purchasing green tourism products. Similarly, environmental friendly and green tourism products and services are very essential features for tourist behaviour response. Green tourism is the phenomenon of people away from their usual habitat in pursuit of leisure activities in the countryside.

There arc different types of environmental friendly tourism services: (1) transportation services such as road, air and cruise ships and boats; (2) accommodation such as green hotels, motels; (3) restaurants, bars; (4) entertainment venues; and (5) other hospitality industry services such as resorts, spas and so on. Nevertheless, Bangladesh is facing the challenge to deliver environmental friendly tourist products, new experiences and services for potential local and foreign tourists.

Prior studies have focused on ecotourism attitude and interest, and their influence on ecotourism behaviours which has been empirically well established (Lai and Nepal, 2006; Oviedo-Garci'a et al., 2016; Singh ct al., 2007). However, ecotourism attitude and interest as determinants of behaviour remain essential (Lu et al., 2014), therefore, there is a need for research to focus on their antecedents of consumer pro-environmental behaviour and purchase behaviour of green tourism products and services. Research on green products and services is emerging to develop a green tourism marketing strategy, ecotourism and sustainable tourism to attract environmentalism tourists and foreign tourists for sustainable development.

The chapter highlights a comprehensive conceptual framework that helps to understand tourist’s purchasing behaviour response in environment friendly tourism products and services. At the same time, however, it will focus on the main factors of environmental marketing that are influential to tourists’ purchase intention of environmental friendly and green tourism services in Bangladesh. Moreover, the chapter addresses the overview and present scenario of environmental friendly and green tourism products and services in developing country of Bangladesh. This finding helps tourist agencies, the tourism industry and marketers to increase in value and be more considerate of tourists’ current needs or demands for safer and better environmental friendly products and services.

In this present chapter, the literature review includes reviewing some important theories such as extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), green tourism

Environmental marketing 275 products and services, green perceived quality, environment concern, green purchase intention and behaviour response on green products and services. A previous study is presented to fill up the research gap. It attempts to differentiate the present study from past studies in green tourism industry.

Then the methodology deals with the selection of a sample of tourist respondents, methods of data collection, research questionnaire, measurement techniques and processing and analysis of data. The chapter proposes to develop the conceptual framework of environmental attitude, environment concern, green perceived quality, price awareness, purchase intention and behaviour by applying the theory of planned behaviour. Further the chapter attempts to prove in the construction of model and hypotheses development. Finally, the chapter concludes by proving hypothesizes and addressing a set of recommendations with a view to improving environmental friendly and green tourism products and services in Bangladesh.

Literature review

Green tourism products and services

Usually, the terms “green” and “environmental” products commonly mean those that are naturally non-toxic, made from recycled material or lightly packaged (Ottman, 2004). Green products are often seen as safer, healthier and gentler than other traditional products (Luchs et al., 2010). Green foods are those that are fine quality, safe to be consumed, nutritious, concerned with animal welfare and which are produced under the principle of sustainable development (Saleki and Seyedsaleki, 2012). Similarly, green products are locally grown, recycle/reusable, contain natural ingredients, contain recycled content, contain approved chemicals, do not pollute the environment and are not tested on animals (Mishra and Sharma, 2010). Repair, recycle, re-manufacture and reuse of the product (Charter, 1992; Prakash, 2002; Hasan et al., 2019) or part of it to reduce packaging and make products more durable, repairable, compostable, healthy and safe in shipment are the most common production strategies for green products (Mishra and Sharma, 2010).

In general, tourism products include food, accommodation, tours, transportation, recreational activities and historic sites. A green tourism product can be defined by the physical and psychological satisfaction it provides to tourists during their travelling to the destination that is good for health and has no bad impact on environment. Moreover, environmental friendly and green tourism products and services include healthy food, ozone-friendly products, eco-friendly accommodation and transportation and 3R products (refillable, reusable and recyclable). Green tourist products and services focus on facilities and services designed to meet tourist satisfaction with a good environmental impact. In Bangladesh, some of the popular green tourism products include accommodations in green hotels and environmental friendly transportation, villas and specific accommodations for families or small groups.

Theory of planned behaviour

The concept of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was proposed by leek Ajzen (1985) to improve on the predictive power of the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). The theory states (see Figure 16.1) that intention toward behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control together shape an individual’s intentions and behaviours (Ajzen, 1991). In the context of tourism, attitude is the total evaluation of the tourism involvement response, which consists of two elements: belief about the likely consequence of tourism participation and values associated with the results. Subject norm is considered as the influence of others in particular on the decision to engage in the individual behaviour (Mohaidin et al., 2017). Perceived control significantly influences the intention to visit a tourist destination (Lam and Hsu, 2006). The TPB is extended by studying variables such as service quality, satisfaction, distraction image, word-of-mouth, knowledge and frequency of past behaviour to explain the green hotel consumers’ revisit intentions (Mohaidin et al., 2017) and intention to select sustainable tourism destinations (Han and Kim, 2010). Therefore, to have a better explanation of the tourist’s intention to purchase environmental friendly and green tourism products and services, this study attempts to add other variables to the TPB. More specifically, adding a separate environment concern, green perceived quality, awareness of price and safety and health concern components are derived in this chapter context. The TPB provided an alternative model that allows an in-depth understanding of the intention of tourists to purchase environmental friendly and green tourism products and services. Thus, the present model proposes that attitudinal factors (environmental attitude and environment concern, which arc related to the attitude of TPB), awareness of

Theory of planned behaviour

Figure 16.1 Theory of planned behaviour

Source: (Ajzen, 1991)

Conceptual framework of green purchase behaviour of environmental-friendly and green tourism products and services

Figure 16.2 Conceptual framework of green purchase behaviour of environmental-friendly and green tourism products and services

Source: Elaborated by the author

price, health and safety concern and green perceived quality can predict the intention behaviours of purchase of environmental friendly tourist products and services. Similarly, the model also considered the relationship between green purchase intention and tourist purchase behaviour to environmental friendly tourism products and services and it will present an opportunity to provide a greater explanation of the TPB model. The theoretical model for this research is presented in Figure 16.2.

Environmental attitude

Attitude is defined as a “person’s degree of favourableness or unfavourableness on a psychological object” (Ajzcn and Fishbein, 2000). It is considered as a key determinant that influences individuals to act with more environmentally responsible behaviour (Cottrell, 2003). During tours and travel, it has been verified that people who exhibit positive environmental attitudes will also portray a stronger desire to experience and indulge more with nature (Luo and Deng, 2008; Eagles and Higgins, 1998). Attitudes towards environmental issues are positively correlated to a willingness to purchase (Alwitt and Pitts, 1996; Chen and Chang, 2013). This indicates that stronger attitudes towards environmental issues can affect consumers’ buying behaviour. As such, tourism studies showed that tourists positively influenced the behavioural intention of visitors in a different setting

(Chan and Lau, 2002; Cheung et al., 1999; Taylor and Todd, 1995). Hence, the following hypothesis is formed:

Hl: Environmental attitude has a positive influence on green tourism products and services and purchase intention.

Environmental concern

Consumers who have a concern for the environment are optimistic about the green credentials of products and strongly inclined to purchase those products in order to gain a healthier lifestyle and to remain true to their principles (Agyeman, 2014; Magnier and Crie, 2015; Paul et al., 2016). Environment concern refers to people’s awareness of the environmental issues and their willingness and support to resolve them(Hu et al., 2010). It is an important factor which influences purchase intention through its effect on attitude, subjective norms and purchase behaviour control (Chen and Tung, 2014). Hartmann and Apaolaza-Ibanez (2012) stated that environment concern affects purchase intention directly as well as indirectly through the development of positive attitude toward green energy and environmental concern might be reflected by an increasing intention to purchase green products (Kalafatis et al., 1999).

Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch, Sinkovics and Bohlen (2003) mentioned environmental concern as a major factor in the consumer decision-making process. It uses three dimensions (knowledge about green issues, attitudes toward environmental quality and environmental sensitive behaviour).

In the Indian context, Paul et al. (2016) established significant direct and indirect effect of environmental concern on green purchase intentions through the mediation of TPB predictor variables. In a prior study (Ansal and Atalar, 2016), there were significant relations among environmental concern and ecological purchase intention. Environmental consumers are more internally controlled because they believe that an individual consumer can be useful in environmental protection (Gadenne et al., 2011; Hartmann and Apaolaza-Ibanez, 2012). Therefore, we hypothesize the following:

H2: Environmental concern has a positive influence on green purchase intention to environmental friendly and green tourism products or services.

Green perceived quality

Perceived quality is the consumer’s judgment about a product or service’s overall excellence or superiority compared to alternatives (Zeithaml, 1988). Perceived quality is a significant factor that influences consumers for making purchase decisions (e.g. Zeithaml, 1988; Gutman and Reynolds, 1979) and measures customer satisfaction (Zeithaml et al., 1996; Kim et al., 2008). Green perceived quality is the customer’s decision about a brand’s overall environmental excellence (Chen and Chang, 2013).

Lee et al. (2007) defined service quality as a set of attributes comprising health and cleanliness, safety and security, facility quality, staff responsiveness and recreation settings. About the effect of perceived service quality on the behavioural intention of tourists, numerous studies on the relationship between service quality, satisfaction and behaviour of individuals have focused on behavioural intention (Baker and Crompton, 2000; Cronin et al., 2000; Yu et al., 2006; Nekmahmud and Rahman, 2018). Therefore, there is a relationship between quality service and tourist satisfaction, which in turn leads to destination loyalty (Hui et al., 2007). Also, quite a few studies in tourism industries have shown that service quality is a precursor factor of behavioural intentions (Li et al., 2011; Aliman and Mohamad, 2013; Ahmed and Azam, 2010). Thus, this chapter proposes that green perceived quality (services) influences tourists’ intentions to purchase green tourism products or services. Most consumers believed that the green products had consistent quality, acceptable standard of quality and value for money (Mahesh, 2013). According to the previous studies and literature review, we hypothesize the following:

H3: Green perceived quality of tourism products or services positively influences intention to purchase environmental products or services.

Safety and health concerns

Safety and health concerns are defined as consumers’ concerned regarding quality of life, health issues and the environment for humans and non-human species (Dunlap and Scarce, 1991; Qader and Zainuddin, 2011). The probability that individuals will be affected by one or more of these areas is an environmental issue (Dunlap and Van Liere, 1978; Mitchell, 1990). According to Wall (1995), safety and health concerns are considered to be the strongest predictor of attitude and behaviour and increasing concern with health and safety are becoming prominent factor in shaping people’s attitudes towards the environment. However, Rundmo (1999) performed health behaviour, environmental behaviour as well as consumer behaviour related to purchasing green products. Consumers are very much concerned about food safety, particularly organic foods (Zhang, 2005). Educated and variety-seeking consumers are most likely to purchase organic food products in the future. Thus, safety and health arc very vital variables of tourists when they are travelling. During travelling, tourists want to buy healthy environmental friendly products and expect green services, for example green hotels and restaurants. Therefore, we hypothesize the following:

H4: Safety and health concerns positively influence green purchase intention of environmental friendly and green tourism products and services.

Awareness of price

Price is the vital factor influencing consumers’ purchase decisions. Green pricing can be defined as “setting prices for green products that offset consumers’ sensitivity to price against their willingness to pay more for products’ environmental performance” (Grove et al., 1996). Previous studies have identified price as a major barrier that keeps consumers from purchasing environmental friendly food (Jolly, 1991; Lockie et al., 2002). Nevertheless, consumers are willing to pay a premium price for green products, but perceived benefits and the product’s category also influence the willingness to pay (e.g. Essoussi and Linton, 2010). Some research papers have analysed pricing decisions in the tourism service industry (e.g. Song et al., 2009; Njoya, 2019; He et al., 2019; Sharma and Nayak, 2020). Price is important when selecting hotel accommodation and identifying the price trigger points that would influence the purchasing behaviour of tourists (Lockyer, 2005). According to the previous studies and literature review, we hypothesize the following:

H5: Awareness ofprice positively influences green purchase intention of tourism products and services.

Purchase intention (PI) and purchase behaviour (PB)

Attitude toward green purchase behaviour has been reported to relate positively to green purchase intention from different countries across a wide range of green products such as green hotels (Han and Yoon, 2015), beverages (Birgclen et al., 2009), organic food products (Zhou et al., 2013) and tourism (Barber et al., 2010).

Manaktola and Jauhari (2007) stated that attitude toward green practices in the lodging industry influences consumers’ choice to stay in hotels adopting green practices. Prakash and Pathak (2017) reported positive association between attitude toward eco-friendly packing and intention to purchase products with such packaging. Similarly, Paul et al. (2016) and Yadav and Pathak (2017) demonstrated a positive linkage between attitude toward green products and green purchase intention. On the contrary, Ramayah et al. (2010) failed to find any significant association between attitude toward environmental consequences and green purchase intention. According to TPB, when the behaviour is voluntary in nature, its performance is the result of intention. In the context of green products, Yadav and Pathak (2017) found support for the positive association between behavioural intentions and green buying behaviour. Based on the theoretical framework of TPB and these arguments, we hypothesize the following:

H6: Green purchase intention has a positive influence on purchase behaviour of environmental friendly and green tourism products and services.


Participants and procedure

The chapter measures tourists’ purchasing behaviour response to environment friendly tourism products and services. Moreover, it also a comprehensive conceptual framework that helps to understand tourists’ purchasing behaviour response

Table 16.1 Summary of the socio-demographic profile of respondents












<20 years



20-25 years



25-30 years



>30 years



Level of Education

Secondary education



Higher secondary












Average Monthly Income

0-10,000 BDT









> 40,000



Total Respondents



to environment friendly tourism products and services. This study is descriptive in nature, conducted based on mixed methods of primary and secondary data. The designated respondent for the chapter includes all tourists who regularly like to travel in new tourist destinations in Bangladesh. Table 16.1 shows the summary of the socio-demographic profile of tourists.

The random sampling method is used to select respondents from Bangladesh. To achieve the chapter goals, the primary data were collected over a 25-day period during January 2020 to February 2020. The online survey method was used to collect primary data by creating Google drive questionnaire interviews sent by email, social media (Facebook and Instagram) and some direct interviews. The secondary data are collected from different sources such as previous scientific articles, books, different related publications, news, reports and websites.

Questionnaire development and instrument

A questionnaire was designed as the major tool of the study. It had two sections: Section one identifies tourist social demographic criteria. Section two includes seven constructs (23 measurement questions) of independent variables (e.g. tourist environmental behaviour, environment concern, green perceived quality', health and safety concerns and awareness of price) and two dependent variables (e.g. purchase intention and purchase behaviour) (see Table 16.2 for the questionnaire constructs) through using of the theory of planned behaviour. Here a 5-point Likert scale was used to measure related questions for both independent variables and dependent variables, where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree.

Data were collected from direct and online interviews through the questionnaire. We distributed 250 questionnaires to tourists to measure purchasing behaviour response in environment friendly tourism products and services in Bangladesh. Among them, 210 respondents returned the completed questionnaires. Because of respondents’ inability and excessive missing values, we had to drop 45 questionnaires. The size of the sample stands at 205.

The collected data were analysed by the partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) model which is a variance-based path modelling technique for analysing the structural equation modelling (SEM), measurement model and hypothesis testing by applying SmartPLS software, 3.2.8 version (Ringle et al., 2015). New developments in PLS-SEM are called a fully fledged SEM approach (Henseler ct al., 2016; Valaei and Jiroudi, 2016). For the objectives of this study, PLS-SEM is most suitable for explaining how underlying key drivers predict purchase intention (Coelho and Henseler, 2012).

Results and discussion

Partial least squares (PLS)

PLS-SEM handles non-normal data, small sample sizes and uses formative indicators, the most prominent reasons for its application, and also allows the examination of more complex model structures or better handling of data inadequacies such as heterogeneity (Hair ct al., 2014).

Measurement model

In the measurement model, the latent constructs in reliability and validity (e.g. internal consistency reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity) of the construct measures were observed in this stage.

Reliability test

The chapter calculated the reliability which is generally measured via Cronbach’s coefficient alpha and t composite reliability to check for internal consistency of the constructs. If the Cronbach’s alpha values exceeded the criterion of 0.700, all constructs had no problems in reliabilities (Anderson et al., 2010). Table 16.2 demonstrates that the calculated value of the Cronbach’s alpha values for all

Table 16.2 Standardized loadings, Cronbach’s alpha, CR, AVE and VIF for the constructs




Cranach’s Alpha


Composite Reliability




Environmental Attitude

I am concerned about wasting the resources of our planet








I believe that I should be personally involved in the preservation of wildlife and/or nature




All citizens have an obligation to protect and preserve wildlife and nature




I think more needs to be done to educate the general public about the importance of nature and wildlife to our planet




I think of myself as an environmentalist




Environment Concern

I am verv concerned about the environment in the tourism sector








I would be willing to reduce my consumption to help protect the environment in the tourism industry




Anti-pollution laws should be enforced more strongly in tourism




Green Perceived Quality

I think green tourism products and services have an acceptable standard of quality








Green tourism products have consistent quality with respect to environmental concerns




Green tourism services in sustainable tourism destinations like nature are reliable




Green tourism products are recyclable, reusable and disposable




Safety and Health Concerns

I think green tourism products and services are becoming safe and secure

0. 867







Green tourism products and services make me conformable when I travelling




I feel risk free when consuming green tourism products




Table 16.2 (Continued)


Tourist Awareness of Price

I think that the green tourism products are expensive








I would choose environmentally friendly tourism goods, services,




campaigns or companies if the price were the same

If the price of green tourism products was less expensive I’d be willing to change my lifestyle by purchasing green products when I travel




Purchase Intention







I will consider buying green tourism products because they are less polluting


I plan to spend more on environmental friendly products rather than conventional products when I travel




I expect to purchase green tourism products in the future because of their positive environmental contribution




I plan to/ am willing to purchase green tourism products and services when travelling in near future




Purchase Behaviour








I have green purchasing behaviour for my travelling period

’ Composite reliability - (square of the summation of the factor loadings)/ {(square of the summation of the factor loadings) + (square of the summation of the error variances)}.

b AVE = (summation of the square of the factor loadings)/j(summation of the square of the factor loadings) + (summation of the error variances)}.

Environmental marketing 285 constructs surpassed the threshold value of 0.700 except health and safety concerns. This means the data is good and reliable and composite reliability ranges between 1.000 to 0.802 which all surpassed the boundary of 0.70 (Hair et al., 2014), signifying strong reliability among the measures and that the data is free from random error.

Convergent validity

The standardized loadings of all measurement items have been revealed by a bootstrapping analysis of 300 subsamples. In Table 16.2, the convergent validity was accomplished as the factor item loadings go beyond 0.60, the composite reliability exceeds 0.70 and the AVE is above 0.50 (Hair et al., 2014). All were significant (pc.001) with strong confirmation of convergent validity, and the measurement items were well loaded on their own constructs. Forncll and Larcker (1981) mentioned 0.50 is the minimum cut-off value for a reliable construct. After finalizing the analysis, five items (EC4, Major social changes are necessary to protect the natural environment in tourism; GPQ3, Quality of green services in this place is good value for money; SEC2, Green tourism products are good for my health because they are environmental friendly; PB1,1 have been purchasing green tourism products; and PB3, I have green purchasing behaviour over the past travelling) were deleted for not meeting the criterion of loading value which is lower than 0.50.

On the other hand, the variance inflation factor (VIE) values of these analyses ranged from 1.000 (purchase behaviour) to 3.249 (purchase intention), which are less than the reference value of 5 (Hair et al., 2017). This indicates the structural mode result has no negative effect and no multicollinearity issues among the items or predictor constructs.

Structural model

Now we will explain the structural model of the PLS data analysis by observing the hypothesis. The endogenous variable of the R2 purchase intention was 0.871 and purchase behaviour was 0.048 which exceeded the minimum level of 10% suggested by Falk and Miller (1992), signifying that 84.8% and 48.0% respectively of the variance in tourist green purchasing intention and behaviour is explained by the independent variables that reflect strong power for the model. Even, the R2 value surpasses 20% is considered high for consumer behaviour studies stated by Rasoolimanesh et al. (2016).

Hair Jr. et al. (2017, p. 156) explained that “the path coefficient will be significant, if the confidence interval does not contain the value zero”. Table 16.3 and Figure 16.3 demonstrate the results of the path coefficients and t-values which were itemized as outlined.

Structural model results (i.e. path coefficients with t-values, including level of significance; and R-square values)

Figure 16.3 Structural model results (i.e. path coefficients with t-values, including level of significance; and R-square values)

The results of the hypotheses, interpretation and discussion

First hypothesis (Hl)

The results of the structural equation and path coefficients analysis of the alternative hypothesis Hl as presented in Table 16.3 indicated that environment attitude is seen to have a significantly positive influence on green purchase intention, which is well within expectations (pl =0.376, bootstrap t-valuc-5.436, p<0.05). Hence, Hl is therefore supported.

Second hypothesis (H2)

Tourists environment concern has a positive influence and significantly affects consumers’ purchase intention on environmental friendly and green products and services in Bangladesh and disclosed a significant result (pl= 1.014; t-value = 3.172; p< 0.05), thus H2 is supported (see Table 16.3).

Third hypothesis (H3)

Tourists’ green perceived quality (TPQ) has an insignificant influence on purchase decisions on environmental friendly and green tourism product and services in Bangladesh (pl= -0.055; t-value = 2.839 p > 0.05). Per the evidence, green perceived quality p-valuc is 0.005, which is lower than the value of 0.05 Thus, H3 is supported signifying that the significant positive relation between TPQ and PI (see Table 16.3).

Fourth hypothesis (H4)

In the alternative hypothesis, H4, tourist awareness of green price has a strongly negative significant influence on environmental-friendly and green tourism products and services in Bangladesh. The significance value for the hypothesis is 0.075, which is higher than the level of significance p *4 0.05. The path estimates noted that green awareness of price does indeed have a significant negative relationship with green purchase intention (pl = 0.376, bootstrap t-value = 1.786, p < 0.05), thus H4 is not supported (see Table 16.3).

Fifth hypothesis (H5)

Health and safety concerns have a positive significant influence on purchase intention on environmental-friendly and green tourism products and services and revealed a significant result (pl = 1.452; t-value = 2.204; p < 0.05), thus H5 is supported (see Table 16.3).

Table 16.3 Path coefficient and hypothesis testing

Hypothesized Paths

Mean (M)



Bootstrap t value

P Values (2-tailed)

Results/ Decisions

Hl Environment attitude -> Purchase intention





Hl supported

H2 Environment concern -> Purchase intention





H2 supported

H3 Green perceived quality -> Purchase intention





H3 supported

H4 Awareness of price -> Purchase intention





H4 not supported

H5 Safetv and health concerns -> Purchase intention





H5 supported

H6 Purchase intention -> Purchase behaviour





H6 supported

Note: For two-tailed tests: * Statistically significant at p<0.05 (for t-vahie > 1.960).

Endogenous latent construct

Coefficient of determination (R2)

Adjusted R

Purchase intention



Purchase behaviour



Sixth hypothesis (H6)

The standardized beta coefficients reveal that green purchase intention was seen to significantly affect tourist purchasing behaviour in respect of environmental friendly and green tourism products and services (pl *4 0.174, bootstrap t-value =2.347, p < 0.05), thus H6 is supported (see Table 16.3).

Managerial Implications

The findings of this chapter have significant managerial implications. It will support generating new thoughts for researchers, academicians, consultants, policymakers, tourism agencies and marketing people about current tourist behaviour responses on green tourism products and services. Tourists are now more concerned about the environment and they have a positive attitude towards environmental issues. Visitors are now demanding an acceptable standard of eco-friendly products and services, so that they can travel conveniently, healthily and without risk. In general, people are travelling for refreshments, entertainment and wellness. So travellers are always expecting safety, healthy, comfortable tour. Travellers feel that green tourism products and services arc good for their health and have a positive impact on the environment. Government and non-government organizations need to provide environmental-friendly tourism products and services from now on. Nevertheless, green tourism services in sustainable tourism destinations like nature are reliable. The consumer believes green tourism products are recyclable, reusable and disposable. Price is an important factor, where tourists are expecting a consistent price. The study also finds improvement areas for tourism investors and sellers for serving better than they did before and helps to achieve remarkable progress. People who are involved in tourism-related business and activities should pay attention to improving the quality and eco-friendly services, ensuring safety and to build a sustainable and environmental tourism industry.

Conclusions and recommendations

This chapter aims to understand tourist purchase intention and purchase behaviour of environmental friendly and green tourism products and services. In Bangladesh, the tourism industry has potential to contribute to GDP. Green tourism products and services could attract both foreign and domestic tourists and also contribute to environmental protection. In this chapter, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was explained to be a viable approach. The conceptual framework based on TPB theory improved the understanding of the intention to purchase green tourism products and services. The result of hypotheses about environmental attitude, environment concern, green perceived quality and health and safety concerns have a positive significant relationship with purchase intention to environmental friendly and green tourism products and services in Bangladesh. Nevertheless, Bangladeshi people are price sensitive. In general, the prices of green tourism products and services arc higher than traditional services. Price also depends on income so an awareness of price has a negative relation with purchase intention. Finally, the chapter tried to prove the relation of purchase intention of environmental friendly tourist products and services with tourist purchase behaviour which has a negative relation.

Eco-friendly transportation facilities, easy online visas and immigration processes, easy money transfer process, safe and clean sightseeing opportunities, healthy eco-friendly food and accommodation facilities should be ensured by the public and private companies. In general, most consumers respond positively to green ads (e.g. print and television ads) (Huq et al., 2015; Huq et al., 2016) that predict tourists’ purchase intention towards eco-friendly tourism products and services. Thus, the tourist agency and marketer should provide information to foreign tourists about environment-friendly tourism products and services by using green marketing tools, such as green branding, green advertising and ecolabels. The tourism policy of Bangladesh 2009 is not related with environmental issues. Environmental-friendly tourism policy is urgent for ensuring the eco-friendly tourism industry. Even, tourism policy and regulation should mention some guidelines to stakeholders on how they can ensure eco-friendly and healthy tourism products and services. The government should make green investment in the tourism sector to attract foreign tourists. Besides, tourist agency and marketing people can contribute to making a sustainable and eco-friendly tourism industry by applying environmental and sustainable marketing activities. To develop the tourism industry, Bangladesh should introduce green and environmental-friendly products and services. At present, a number of hotels and restaurants are now offering environmental-friendly service. High green investment, eco-friendly tourism policy and regulation, collaboration with several stakeholders, environmental marketing activities and green attitude could make the eco-friendly and sustainable tourism industry.


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