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Privacy, as used here, means the inability of remote parties receiving TPM digital signatures to correlate them—to cryptographically prove that they came from the same TPM. A user can use different signing keys for different applications to make correlation difficult. The attacker's task is to trace these multiple keys back to a single user.

Privacy sensitivity is most applicable to home users who own and control their platform. In an enterprise, the IT department may control the platform completely and weaken the privacy features. This discussion is also concerned mostly with remote correlation—it doesn't consider an attacker who can confiscate a platform.

The requirement for correlation is ensuring that the signing keys came from a single, authentic TPM. If the key can be duplicated on another TPM or is from a software implementation, the signature can't be traced back to a single device.

The TPM vendor generates an endorsement primary seed, generates one or more primary keys from this seed, and then generates certificates for these keys. The certificates attest that the key is from an authentic TPM manufactured by the vendor. The platform manufacturer may create an analogous platform certificate. From primary keys, other keys are in some way certified.

If a primary key is a signing key and directly certifies other signing keys, correlation is simple, because all signatures converge at the same certificate. An attester seeing the certificate chain could prove that the attestation came from an authentic device. Further, the certificate chain can indicate that the key was fixed to that particular TPM. For this reason, primary keys in the endorsement hierarchy are typically encryption keys, not signing keys.

When the primary key is an encryption key, the process to create a descendent key certificate uses a more complicated flow, called activating a credential. The certificate authority is referred to as a privacy CA, because it's trusted not to leak any correlation between the keys it has certified.

Activating a Credential

The TPM doesn't mandate a credential format, but the intent is something like an X.509 certificate, where a credential provider such as a CA signs a public signing key and

a statement about the key's attributes. The credential process in the TCG model has multiple goals:

• The credential provider can be assured of the key attributes it's certifying.

• Receivers of the TPM key signatures can't determine that the multiple keys are resident on the same TPM.

The certificate authority could provide this correlation, but you can assume that this privacy CA would not normally do so.

In TPM 1.2, a key that can be activated is restricted to be an identity key (AIK), which isn't migratable (can't be backed up), is restricted to signing only TPM-generated data, and is always a child of the SRK. In TPM 2.0, all these restrictions have been removed while still achieving both of the previously stated goals.

In this description, recall that a TPM 2.0 key's Name is a digest of its public data.

It completely identifies the key. The digest includes the public key and its attributes.

The simplified concept is that the primary key is a decryption key, not a signing key. The CA constructs a certificate and encrypts it with the primary key public key. Only the TPM with the corresponding private key can recover the certificate. See Figure 9-1.

Figure 9-1. Activating a Credential

The following happens at the credential provider:

1. The credential provider receives the Key's public area and a certificate for an Encryption Key. The Encryption Key

is typically a primary key in the endorsement hierarchy, and its certificate is issued by the TPM and/or platform manufacturer.

2. The credential provider walks the Encryption Key certificate chain back to the issuer's root. Typically, the provider verifies that the Encryption Key is fixed to a known compliant hardware TPM.

3. The provider examines the Key's public area and decides whether to issue a certificate, and what the certificate should say. In a typical case, the provider issues a certificate for a restricted Key that is fixed to the TPM.

4. The requester may have tried to alter the Key's public area attributes. This attack won't be successful. See step 5 in the process that occurs at the TPM.

5. The provider generates a credential for the Key

6. The provider generates a Secret that is used to protect the credential. Typically, this is a symmetric encryption key, but it can be a secret used to generate encryption and integrity keys. The format and use of this secret aren't mandated by the TCG.

7. The provider generates a 'Seed' to a key derivation function (KDF). If the Encryption Key is an RSA key, the Seed is simply a random number, because an RSA key can directly

encrypt and decrypt. If the Decryption Key is an elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) key, a more complex procedure using a Diffie-Hellman protocol is required.

8. This Seed is encrypted by the Encryption Key public key. It can later only be decrypted by the TPM.

9. The Seed is used in a TCG-specified KDF to generate a symmetric encryption key and an HMAC key. The symmetric key is used to encrypt the Secret, and the HMAC key provides integrity. Subtle but important is that the KDF also uses the key's Name. You'll see why later.

10. The encrypted Secret and its integrity value are sent to the TPM in a credential blob. The encrypted Seed is sent as well.

If you follow all this, you have the following:

• A credential protected by a Secret

• A Secret encrypted by a key derived from a Seed and the key's Name

• A Seed encrypted by a TPM Encryption Key

These things happen at the TPM:

1. The encrypted Seed is applied against the TPM Encryption Key, and the Seed is recovered. The Seed remains inside the TPM.

2. The TPM computes the loaded key's Name.

3. The Name and the Seed are combined using the same TCG KDF to produce a symmetric encryption key and an HMAC key.

4. The two keys are applied to the protected Secret, checking its integrity and decrypting it.

5. This is where an attack on the key's public area attributes is detected. If the attacker presents a key to the credential

provider that is different from the key loaded in the TPM, the Name will differ, and thus the symmetric and HMAC keys will differ, and this step will fail.

6. The TPM returns the Secret.

Outside the TPM, the Secret is applied to the credential in some agreed upon way. This can be as simple as using the Secret as a symmetric decryption key to decrypt the credential.

This protocol assures the credential provider that the credential can only be recovered if:

• The TPM has the private key associated with the Encryption Key certificate.

• The TPM has a key identical to the one presented to the credential provider.

The privacy administrator should control the use of the endorsement key, both as a signing key and in the activate-credential protocol, and thus control its correlation to another TPM key.

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