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Handbook of Strategies and Strategic Processing

Why a handbook on strategies and strategic processing?Conceptualizations of strategies and strategy useConceptualizations of strategies in the context of instructionOperationalizations and analysis of strategies and strategy useThe future of research on strategies and strategic processingReferencesSection I: Definitions, forms, and levels of strategiesStrategic processing within and across domains of learningIntroductionConceptualizing strategies in educational researchAreas of learning: disciplines, domains, and tasksOperationalization of generality and specificityGenerality and specificity within and across individual studentsDomain-generality and expertise developmentFuture directions and concluding thoughtsReferencesLevel of strategies and strategic processingMethods for the reviewReview SelectionTabling of the Revie wsFindings and discussion of the reviewConceptualization and Operationalization of Levels of ProcessingSystematic Effects of Levels of Processing on PerformanceInfluences of Contextual and Individuals Factors that Mediate or Moderate the Relation between Levels of Processing and PerformanceFuture directionsFuture Directions for ResearchImplications for PracticeConcluding ThoughtsReferencesА lifespan developmental perspective on strategic processingStrategic processing: from a conditioned state to a growth perspectiveA developmental perspective on learningStrategic processing in a multi-staged frameworkInternal and external differences in learningIssues and limitations in the current field, and future directionsImplications for practiceConcluding thoughtsReferencesNegotiating meaning and engagement: socially shared strategic processingA framework for studying strategic processing as socially and culturally situatedSituating Strategic Processing in a Model of SRLIndividual and Social Influences on Socially Shared Strategic ProcessingSupporting strategic processing in the life of the classroomSetting the Stage for Social Forms of Strategic ProcessingSupporting Learners to Recognize and Participate in the Life of the ClassroomLearning to Learn Together: Qualities of DiscourseSupporting social shared strategic processing: pedagogical principlesSocial Emotional LearningSelf-Regulated LearningFormative Assessment (FA)Supporting Socially Shared Strategic Processing in Collaborative Learning FrameworksSupporting Socially Shared Strategic Processing within Cooperative LearningSupporting Socially Shared Strategic Processing in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)Supporting Socially Shared Strategic Processing in Open-Ended Collaborative ActivitiesConclusions and future directionsReferencesCommentary: a conceptual framework for defining strategies and strategic processingComing to terms with terms: a rationale for defining strategic processingThe Need to Define TermsThe Need to Define Strategic ProcessingDefining terms: the meaning of strategies and strategic processingWhat Is a Strategy?Types of StrategiesWhat Is Strategic Processing?Flexible and Adaptive Self-regulated CyclesConclusions and future directionsReferencesSection II: Strategies in actionReading comprehension strategy instructionReading comprehension strategies: clarifications and challenges to effective instructionAn overview of reading comprehension strategy research and instructionComprehension strategies are necessary for students to succeed with increasingly challenging texts and related reading tasksWhich approach to reading comprehension strategy instruction?The knowledge needed for successful reading comprehension strategy instruction and learningDeclarative KnowledgeProcedural KnowledgeConditional KnowledgeEpistemic KnowledgeDisciplinary KnowledgeConclusionsFuture directionsReferencesSix questions regarding strategy use when learning from multiple textsWhat strategies do students use when learning from multiple texts?Strategy Functions When Learning from Multiple TextsStrategy Referents When Learning from Multiple TextsComprehensive Strategy FrameworkOverviewWhere are strategies directed during multiple text use?When are strategies deployed during multiple text use?Who benefits from strategy use during multiple text use?Why do students deploy strategies during multiple text use?How can we determine the effectiveness of strategy use during multiple text task completion?ConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesWriting strategies interventionsTheoretical role of strategies and strategic processing in writingEmpirical evidence supporting strategic writingWriting strategy instructionTeaching Writing StrategiesSRSDIssues and future researchWhat Writing Strategies Are Applied within and across Contexts?Why Is Writing Strategy Instruction Not More Common in Schools?How Can Flexible and Sustained Use of Writing Strategies Be Promoted?Final ConsiderationsReferencesMathematics strategy interventionsIncorrect strategiesErrors with FractionsInterventionsSummaryErrors with AlgebraInterventionsSummaryAlternative correct strategiesFlexibility with FractionsFlexibility with AlgebraInterventionsLimitations and future directionsReferencesScience strategy interventionsHistory of strategies and strategic processing in science educationConcept Development and Conceptual Change StrategiesEmpirical Investigation StrategiesInquiry-based StrategiesScientific Expertise StrategiesContemporary strategies and strategic processing in science educationScience Learning through Argumentation StrategiesScience as Modeling StrategiesAn example of scaffolds to facilitate science learning strategiesIssues and future research directionsConcluding thoughtsAcknowledgmentReferencesStrategic processing in history and historical strategy instructionObserving the strategies of historiansObserving novice’s historical thinking strategiesInstructional approaches for teaching novices historians’ cognitive strategiesInstruction on First- and Second-order ConceptsInstruction on Reading HistoricallyHistorical Discussions and DebatesInstruction on Historical WritingCognitive ApprenticeshipsSummaryIssues and limitations in research on cognitive processing strategiesPresent and future directionsReferencesInterplay of strategic processes, executive functions, and autonomy support in students with individual differencesExecutive functions and strategic processes: historical overviewStrategic Processes in Reading ComprehensionReading Comprehension Strategies and Executive Functions: Areas of ConvergenceCurrent work on efs and strategies in students with individual differencesEFs and Reading ComprehensionExecutive Functions and Students with Individual DifferencesEFs and Strategies: Relations and State of the LiteratureIssues and limitations of these topicsEFs and Strategies in Students with Individual DifferencesInstruction in Inference Making: Benefits for Executive Functions?Future directions: the role of autonomy support for efs and reading comprehension developmentAutonomy Support, EFs, Reading Comprehension Strategies and Reading EngagementAutonomy Support in Academic ContextsParents’ Autonomy Support and EFsImplications for practice: classroom autonomy support, executive functions, and strategic processesReferencesSharing the load: a strategy to improve self-regulated learningThe need for strategies to improve self-regulated learningSelf-regulated learning skillsThe complexity of monitoring learning processesCollaborative learning as a strategy for srl: sharing the loadCo-regulation and socially shared metacognitive regulation of learningConclusion and discussionReferencesCommentary: an analysis of learning strategies in actionGood news and qualificationsWhat is a learning strategy?An abstract model for a learning strategyHow does a learner decide which learning strategy to use?Learning strategies fuse domain knowledge and cognitionConcerns about experiments on learning strategiesSelf-regulated learning muddles findingsNext steps and leapsReferencesSection III: Measuring strategic processingSurveys and retrospective self-reports to measure strategies and strategic processingIntroductionA first generation of surveys and retrospective self-reports to measure student learning strategiesThe second generation of learning strategy instruments and the inclusion of metacognitionRecent developments in self-report tools to measure learning strategies and related phenomenaDomains of Applicability and LimitationsFuture Directions for ResearchImplications for PracticeReferencesConcurrent and Task-specific Self-reportsIntroductionTheoretical backgroundThe Good Strategy User ModelThe Model of Domain LearningThe Cyclical Model of Self-Regulated LearningSummaryMeasuring strategic processing through concurrent and task-specific self-reportsVerbal Protocol AnalysisEye Movement Cued Self-reportsTask-specific Self-report InventoriesDiary MethodsConclusions, implications, and future directionsReferencesExploring the Utilization of the Big Data Revolution as a Methodology for Exploring Learning Strategy in Educational EnvironmentsIntroductionWhat is big data?How big data has been leveraged by industryEducational data mining and learning analyticsPromising research within technology-mediated learning environmentsIntelligent Tutoring SystemsOnline CoursesSerious GamesDiscussion and challenges of big data and the future of strategy researchData Selection and InteroperabilityPrivacy IssuesDe-Siloing Educational ResearchReferencesMeasuring Processing Strategies: Perspectives for Eye Tracking and fMRI in Multi-method DesignsOpportunitiesCan Eye Movements Shed Light on Processing Strategies and Strategy Use?Is fMRI a Bridge Too Far?ChallengesInterpretation of Micro-measuresEcological Validity of Learning TasksAnalysis of Complex DataDiscussion and paths for future researchReferencesCommentary: Measuring Strategic Processing in Concert: Reflections and Future DirectionsMeasuring strategic processing: reflectionsMeasuring strategic processing: future directionsReferencesSection IV: Analyzing Strategic ProcessingVariable-centered ApproachesVariable-centered versus person-centered approachesVariable-centered analysis techniquesData AggregationGeneral Linear ModelsCount DataPath AnalysisStructural Equation ModelingGrowth Curve ModelingCurrent and future directions for variable-centered approaches to strategic processing researchFuture Directions for ResearchConclusionReferencesPerson-centered Approaches to Explaining Students’ Cognitive Processing StrategiesIntroductionSituating person-centered analyses within quantitative approaches to researching cognitive strategiesLessons and directions for person-centered research in strategic processingA Review of Person-centered Research in Strategic ProcessingNudging strategic processing research forwardReferencesQualitative Approaches to the Verbal Protocol Analysis of Strategic ProcessingThe importance of analyzing strategic processing to understanding the construct of readingThe value of analyzing reader-generated verbal data in inquiry into strategic readingAcknowledging the inferential gaps between what is heeded in mind and what indeed is verbalizedContextual influences in verbal reporting and the contextual knowledge of the investigator in verbal protocol analysisData saturation and decision making about when to stop or go further in verbal protocol analysisArgumentation and evidentiary reasoning in qualitative verbal protocol analysisRemaining issues in the qualitative analysis of verbal report dataReferencesCommentary: Analyzing Strategic Processing: Pros and Cons of Different MethodsVariable-centered analysesChi Squared TestT Test, ANOVACorrelationRegressionPath AnalysisStructural Equation ModelingOther Latent Variable ModelsGrowth Curve ModelingTransition Analyses/Data MiningPerson-centered analysesLatent Class Analysis (LCA)Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM)Latent Transition AnalysisQualitative analyses of process dataSummaryReferencesThe Future of Strategy Theory, Research, and Implementation: Roads Less TraveledStrategy research’s meandering and circuitous courseConceptual FogginessSet PathwaysAbsence of Navigational SupportsInsufficient time and spaceInadequate PreparationOutdated or Poorly Matched EquipmentPromising new inroadsDemarcating BoundariesLooking Wider and Going DeeperEncountering Complementary RoutesTectonic ShiftsForging aheadTeachers as Strategic GuidesNaturalistic Contexts for Strategy InquiryMultidimensional, Developmental ModelsIn tributeReferencesContributor bios

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