Desktop version

Home arrow Philosophy

  • Increase font
  • Decrease font

<<   CONTENTS   >>

Concluding thoughts

Our overarching intention was to consider the development of strategic processing across the lifespan as well as to offer a framework in which this development is illustrated. We believe the current developmental framework enables us to better understand previously executed empirical studies and to design future studies on mapping and stimulating learners’ strategic processing. More particularly, the framework offers a rationale for the use of interventions targeting learners’ strategic processing, as well as envisions the paths for strategy research that lies ahead.

As the saying goes, the present belongs to those who have learned but the future belongs to those who are learning (Weinstein et al., 2011). Our 21st century requires us to prepare learners for lifelong learning throughout the different stages of their lifespan. Having an extensive strategy repertoire that can be applied efficiently and flexibly, is a first important step toward becoming an effective learner.


Alexander, P. A. (1997). Mapping the multidimensional nature of domain learning: The interplay of cognitive, motivational, and strategic forces. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 10, pp. 213-250). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Alexander, P. A. (1998). The nature of disciplinary and domain learning: Hie knowledge, interest, and strategic dimensions of learning from subject matter text. In C. R. Hynd (Ed.), Learning from texts across conceptual domains (pp. 263-287). New York: Routledge.

Alexander, P. A. (2003). Hie development of expertise: The journey from acclimation to proficiency. Educational Researcher, 32(8), 10-14. doi:10.3102/0013189X032008010.

Alexander, P. A. (2005). The path to competence: A lifespan developmental perspective on reading. Journal of Literacy Research, 37(4), 413-436. doi:10.1207/sl5548430jlr3704_l.

Alexander, P. A. (2006). Psychology in Learning and Instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Alexander, P. A. (2018). Looking down the road: Future directions for research on depth and regulation of strategic processing. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 152-166. doi: 10.11 U/bjep. 12204.

Alexander, P. A., & Fox, E. (2004). A historical perspective on reading research and practice, redux. In D. E. Alvermann, N. J. Unrau, & R. B. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (6th ed., pp. 3-46). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Alexander, P. A., Graham, S„ & Harris, K. (1998). A perspective on strategy research: Progress and prospects. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 129-154. doi:1023/A:1022185502996.

Alexander, P. A., Grossnickle, E. M„ Dumas, D., & Hattan, C. (2018). A retrospective and prospective examination of cognitive strategies and academic development: Where have we come in twenty-five years? In A. O’Donnell (Ed.), Oxford handbook of educational psychology (pp. 1-56). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Alexander, P. A., Jetton, T. L., & Kulikowich, J. M. (1995). Interrelationship of knowledge, interest, and recall: Assessing a model of domain learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 559-575. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.87.4.559.

Alexander, P. A., & Judy, J. E. (1988). The interaction of domain-specific and strategic knowledge in academic performance. Review of Educational Research, 58,375-404. doi:10.3102/00346543058004375.

Alexander, P. A., Schallert, D. L., & Reynolds, R. E. (2009). What is learning anyway? A topographical perspective considered. Educational Psychologist, 44,209-214. doi:10.1080/00461520903029006.

Alexander, P. A., Schallert, D. L., & Hare, V. C. (1991). Coming to terms: How researchers in learning and literacy talk about knowledge. Review of Educational Research, 61,315-343. doi:10.3102/00346543061003315.

Alfassi, M. (2004). Reading to learn: Effects of combined strategy instruction on high school students. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(4), 171-185. doi:10.3200/JOER.97.4.171-185.

Berninger, V, Fuller, F„ 8c Whitaker, D. (1996). A process model of writing development across the life span. Educational Psychology Review, 8(3), 193-218. doi:10.1007/BF01464073.

Bjorklund, D. F., 8c Pellegrini, A. D. (2000). Child development and evolutionary psychology. Child Development, 71, 1687-1708. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00258.

Bryant, L. C., Vincent, R„ Shaqlaih, A., 8c Moss, G. (2013). Behaviorism and behavioral learning theory. In B. J. Irby, G. Brown, R. Lara-Alecio, 8c S. Jackson (Eds.), Handbook of educational theories (pp. 133-147). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Chen, Z., 8c Siegler, R. S. (2000). Overlapping waves theory. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 65,7-11. doi: 10.1111/1540-5834.00075.

Cornford, I. R. (2002). Learning-to-lean strategies as a basis for effective lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(4), 357-368. doi: 10.1080/02601370210141020.

De Backer, L„ Van Keer, H., 8c Valcke, M. (2015). Exploring evolutions in reciprocal peer tutoring groups’socially shared metacognitive regulation and identifying its metacognitive correlates. Learning and Instruction, 38, 63-78. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.04.001.

De Backer, L., Van Keer, H., 8c Valcke, M. (2016). Eliciting reciprocal peer tutoring groups' metacognitive regulation through structuring and problematizing scaffolds. The Journal of Experimental Education, 84, 804-828. doi:10.1080/00220973.2015.1134419.

De Smedt, F., Graham, S., 8c Van Keer, H. (2019). “It takes two”: The added value of peer-assisted writing in explicit writing instruction. Revised and resubmitted.

De Smedt, F., 8c Van Keer, H. (2018). Fostering writing in upper primary grades: A study into the distinct and combined impact of explicit instruction and peer assistance. Reading and Writing, 3/(2), 325-354. doi:10.1007/sl 1145-017-9787-4.

Dinsmore, D. L., & Alexander, P. A. (2012). A critical discussion of deep and surface processing: What it means, how it is measured, the role of context, and model specification. Educational Psychology Review, 24,499-567. doi: 10.1007/sl0648-012-9198-7.

Dole, J. A., Duffy, G. G., Roehler, L. R., & Pearson, D. D. (1991) Moving from the old to the new: Research on reading comprehension instruction. Review of Educational Research, 61. doi:10.3102/00346543061002239.

Garner, R. (1990). When children and adults do not use learning-strategies - toward a theory of settings. Review of Educational Research, 60(4), 517-529. doi: 10.3102/00346543060004517.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1994). The role and development of self-regulation in the writing process. In D. H. Schunk 8c B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications (pp. 203-228). Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Haataja, E., Malmberg, M., & Jarvela, S. (2018). Monitoring in collaborative learning: Co-occurrence of observed behavior and physiological synchrony explored. Computers in Human Behavior, 87, 337-347. doi: 10.1016/j. chb.2018.06.007.

Hall-Kenyon, K. M„ & Black, S. (2010). Learning from expository texts: Classroom-based strategies for promoting comprehension and content knowledge in the elementary grades. Topics in Language Disorders, 30, 339-349. doi:10.1097/TLD.0b013e3181ft21ea.

Hamman, D., Berthelot, J., Saia, J., & Crowley, E. (2000) Teachers’ coaching of learning and its relation to students’ strategic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 342-348. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.92.2.342.

Harris, K., & Graham, S. (2016). Self-regulated strategy development in writing: Policy implications of an evidence-based practice. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(1), 77-84. doi: 10.1177/2372732215624216.

Harris, K. R., Alexander, P., & Graham, S. (2008). Michael Pressley’s contributions to the history and future of strategies research. Educational Psychologist, 43(2), 86-96. doi: 10.1080/00461520801942300.

Jang, H., Reeve, J., St Deci, E. L. (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: It is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102,588-600. doi: 10.1037/ A0019682.

Kirschner, P., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not. Work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. doi: 10.1207/ sl5326985ep4102_l.

Kistner, S„ Rakoczy, K., Otto, B., Dignath-van Ewijk, C., Buttner, G., & Klieme, E. (2010). Promotion of selfregulated learning in classrooms: Investigating frequency, quality, and consequences for student performance. Metacognition and Learning, 5(2), 157-171. doi:10.1007/sl 1409-010-9055-3.

Leijten, M„ 8: Van Waes, L. (2013). Keystroke logging in writing research: Using inputlog to analyze and visualize writing processes. Written Communication, 30(3), 358-392. doi: 10.1177/0741088313491692.

Malmberg, J., Jarvela, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013). Elementary school students’ strategic learning: Does tasktype matter? Metacognition and Learning, 9(2), 113-136. doi: 10.1007/sl 1409-013-9108-5.

McCardle, L., & Hadwin, A. F. (2015). Using multiple, contextualized data sources to measure learners’ perceptions of their self-regulated learning. Metacognition Learning, 10(1), 43-75. doi:10.1007/sl 1409-014-9132-0.

McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L„ & Blake, R. G. K. (2009). Rethinking reading comprehension instruction: A comparison of instruction for strategies and content approaches. Reading Research Quarterly, 44, 218-253. doi:10.1598/RRQ.44.3.1.

McNamara, D. S. (2011). Measuring deep, reflective comprehension and learning strategies: Challenges and successes. Metacognition and Learning, 3,1-11. doi:10.1007/sl 1409-011-9082-80.

Merchie, E., Van Keer, H., 8c Vandevelde, S. (2014). Development of the text-learning strategies inventory: Assessing and profiling learning from texts in fifth and sixth grade. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 1 -15. doi: 10.1177/0734282914525155.

Murphy, P. K., 8c Alexander, P. A. (2002). What counts? Hie predictive power of subject matter knowledge, strategic processing, and interest in domain-specific performance. Journal of Experimental Education, 70, 197-214. doi: 10.1080/00220970209599506.

Nist, S. L., & Simpson, M. L. (2000). College studying. In M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research, Vol. Ill (pp. 645-666). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Paris, S. G„ Byrnes, J. P„ 8c Paris, A. H. (2001). Constructing theories, identities and actions of self-regulated learners. In B. J. Zimmerman 8c D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement (2nd ed., pp. 253-288). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Paris, S. G., 8c Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 89-101. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3602_4.

Parris, S. R., & Block, C. C. (2008). Summing Up. In C. C. Block & S. R. Parris (Eds.), Comprehension Instruction. Research-Based Best Practices (2nd ed.) (pp. 381-390). New York: Tire Guilford Press.

Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 106, 1854-1878. doi:10.1007/sl0648-004-0006-x.

Pressley, M. (1979). Increasing childrens self-control through cognitive interventions. Review of Educational Research, 49, 319-370. doi:10.3102/00346543049002319.

Pressley, M. (1986). The relevance of the good strategy user model to the teaching of mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 21, 139-161. doi:10.1207/sl5326985ep2101&2_8.

Pressley, M. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research, Vol. 3 (pp. 545-561). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Pressley, M. (2005). Reading Instruction That Works: The Case for Balanced Teaching. New York: Guilford.

Pressley, M„ Borkowski, J. G., & Schneider, W. (1987). Cognitive strategies: Good strategy users coordinate metacognition and knowledge. Annals of Child Development, 4,89-129.

Pressley, M., El-Dinary, P. B., Gaskins, I., Schuder, T, Bergman, J. L., Almasi, J., & Brown, R. (1992). Beyond direct explanation: Transactional instruction of reading comprehension strategies. Elementary School Journal, 92, 511-554. doi:10.1086/461705.

Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. D. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89, 301-342. doi:10.1086/461578.

Pressley, M., Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2006). The state of educational intervention research. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 1-19. doi: 10.1348/000709905X66035.

Pressley, M., & Harris, K. R. (2006). Cognitive strategies instruction: From basic research to classroom instruction. In P. A. Alexander & P. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 265-286). New York: Macmillan.

Pressley, M., Woloshyn, V., Lysynchuk, L. M., Martin, V., Wood, E., & Willoughby, T. (1990). A primer of research on cognitive strategy instruction: Hie important issues and how to address them. Educational Psychology Review, 2,1-58. doi:10.1007/BF01323528.

Rogiers, A., Merchie, E., & Van Keer, H. (2019a). Learner profiles in secondary education: Occurrence and relationship with performance and student characteristics. The Journal of Educational Research, 112(3), 385-396. doi: 10.1080/00220671.2018.1538093.

Rogiers, A., Merchie, E„ & Van Keer, H. (2019b). Stimulating text-learning strategy use in secondary education: A person-centered longitudinal approach. Submitted for publication.

Samuelstuen, M. S., & Braten, I. (2007). Examining the validity of self-reports on scales measuring students’ strategic processing. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 351-378. doi: 10.1348/0007099 06X106147.

Schellings, G. L. M. (2011). Applying learning strategy questionnaires: Problems and possibilities. Metacognition and Learning, 6(2), 91-109. doi: 10.1007/sl 1409-011-9069-5.

Shen, B., & Chen, A. (2006). Examining the interrelations among knowledge, interests, and learning strategies. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 25, 182-199. doi:10.1123/jtpe.25.2.182.

Siegler, R. S. (1996). Emerging minds: The process of change in childrens thinking. New York: Oxford University Press.


Stromso, H. I., 8c Braten, I. (2010). The role of personal epistemology in the self-regulation of Internet-based learning. Metacognition and Learning, 5,91-111. doi: 10.1007/sl 1409-009-9043-7.

Vandevelde, S., Van Keer, H„ & Rosseel, Y. (2013). Measuring the complexity of upper primary school children’s self-regulated learning: A multi-component approach. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38(4), 407-425. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.09.002.

Vandevelde, S., Van Keer, H., Schellings, G., & Van Hout-Wolters, B. (2015). Using think-aloud protocol analysis to gain in-depth insights into upper primary school children’s self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 43,11-30. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.08.027.

Vansteenkiste, M., Sierens, E., Goossens, L., Soenens, B., Dochy, F., Mouratidis, A., ... Beyers, W. (2012). Identifying configurations of perceived teacher autonomy support and structure: Associations with selfregulated learning, motivation and problem behavior. Learning and Instruction, 22,431-439. doi: 10.1016/j. learninstruc.2012.04.002.

Veenman, M. V. J. (2011). Learning to self-monitor and self-regulate. In R. Mayer & P. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of research on learning and instruction (pp. 197-218). New York: Routledge.

Veenman, M. V. J., van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M„ & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 1(1), 3-14. doi: 10.1007/ si 1409-006-6893-0

Wade, S. E., Trathen, W., & Schraw, G. (1990). An analysis of spontaneous study strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 25(2), 147-166. doi: 10.2307/747599.

Weinstein, C. E., Jung, J., & Acee, T. W. (2011). Learning strategies. In V. G. Aukrust (Ed.), Learning and cognition in education (pp. 137-143). Oxford: Elsevier Limited.

Weinstein, C. E., & Mayer, R. E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed„ pp. 315-327). New York: Macmillan.

<<   CONTENTS   >>

Related topics