Desktop version

Home arrow Philosophy

  • Increase font
  • Decrease font

<<   CONTENTS   >>

Implications for practice: classroom autonomy support, executive functions, and strategic processes

Might these same processes hypothesized to be at play in the parenting realm be extrapolated to teacher-student interactions and the use of strategic processes for reading comprehension and other academic tasks? It seems likely. However, research is needed to explore whether the outcomes of teacher autonomy support include enhanced reading-specific EFs. In addition, we need research that addresses whether the dynamics among autonomy support and EFs relate to engagement and achievement in different learning contexts. We hypothesize that teacher autonomy support may affect the deployment of EFs in the classroom through the opportunities it affords students for self-determined and self-regulated action, such as solving problems independently, pursuing their own interests through engaged reading, and selecting and applying cognitive strategies to make sense of text. Further, when students effectively regulate their own learning, we suspect that this facilitates more positive teacher-student relationships, compelling teachers to further encourage their students’ developing autonomy - and EFs, parallel to how Bernier et al. (2010) suggested positive parent-child interactions may feed back to promote even stronger EFs. Additionally, students may internalize the language that their teachers use when, for instance, providing reading strategy instruction in an autonomy supportive manner and, in turn, translate this language into self-talk that they use when reading independently and deploying their EFs to select and implement cognitive strategies appropriately (Bodrova, Leong, & Akhutina, 2011; Cragg & Nation, 2010).

While we have focused on autonomy support and how it strengthens internalized and intrinsic motivation and engagement, other teacher practices and other aspects of motivation should be examined as contributors to students’ strategy usage and strategy selection prior to implementation - processes which necessitate higher order EFs like planning, task analysis, and monitoring (Borkowski et al., 2000). We would love to see future empirical studies consider the relations of teacher practices and motivation in ELs and students with RCD as conduits to effective strategy regulation and thereby, potentially, enhanced EFs and reading comprehension.


Aftlerbach, P„ Hurt, M„ & Cho, B.-Y. (this volume). Reading comprehension strategy instruction. In

D. L. Dinsmore, L. K. Fryer, & M. M. Parkinson (Eds.), Handbook of strategies and strategic processing: Conceptualization, measurement, and analysis. New York: Routledge.

Altemeier, L., Jones, J., Abbott, R. D., & Berninger, V. W. (2006). Executive functions in becoming writing readers and reading writers: Note taking and report writing in third and fifth graders. Developmental Neuropsychology, 29,161-173. doi:10.1207/sl5326942dn2901_8

Barnes, M. A., Faulkner, H., Wilkinson, M., & Dennis, M. (2004). Meaning construction and integration in children with hydrocephalus. Brain and Language, 89,47-56. doi:10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00295-5

Bernier, A., Carlson, S. M., & Whipple, N. (2010). From external regulation to self-regulation: Early parenting precursors of young children’s executive functioning. Child Development, 81, 326-339. doklO.l 111 /j. 1467-8624.2009.01397.x

Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., &Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21,327-336. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2011.01.007

Bialystok, E. (1999). Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind. Child Development, 70, 636-644. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00046

Bialystok, E. (2015). Bilingualism and the development of executive function: I he role of attention. Child Development Perspectives, 9(2), 117-121.

Bialystok, E., & Martin, M. M. (2004). Attention and inhibition in bilingual children: Evidence from the dimensional change card sort task. Developmental Science, 7,325-339. doi: 10.1111/j.l 467-7687.2004.00351 .x Bindman, S. W., Pomerantz, E. M., & Roisman, G. I. (2015). Do children’s executive functions account for associations between autonomy supportive parenting and achievement through high school? Journal of Educational Psychology, 107,756-770. doi:10.1037/edu0000017

Blaye, A., & Chevalier, N. (2011). The role of goal representation in preschoolers’ flexibility and inhibition.

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108,469-483. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.09.006

Bodrova, E„ Leong, D. J., & Akhutina, T. V. (2011). When everything new is well-forgotten old: Vygotsky/Luria insights in the development of executive functions. In R. M. Lerner, J. V. Lerner, E. P. Bowers, S. Lewin-Bizan, S. Gestsdottir, & J. B. Urban (Eds.), Thriving in childhood and adolescence: The role of self-regulation processes (Vol. 133, pp. 11-28). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. doi:10.1002/cd.

Borella, E., Carretti, B., & Pelegrina, S. (2010). The specific role of inhibition in reading comprehension in good and poor comprehenders. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43,541-552. doi: 10.1177/0022219410371676

Borkowski, J. G., Chan, L. K. S., 8t Muthukrishna, N. (2000). A process-oriented model of metacognition: Links between motivation and executive functioning. In G. Schraw & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Issues in the measurement of metacognition (pp. 1-41). Lincoln: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Brown, R. (2008). The road not yet taken: A transactional strategies approach to comprehension instruction. The Reading Teacher, 61, 538-547. doi:10.1598/RT.61.7.3

Brown, R., Pressley, M., Van Meter, P., & Schuder, T. (1996). A quasi-experimental validation of transactional strategies instruction with low-achieving second-grade readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 18-37. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.88.1.18

Bull, R„ & Lee, K. (2014). Executive functioning and mathematics achievement. Child Development Perspectives, 8,36-41. doi: 10.1111 /cdep. 12059

Cain, K. (2006). Individual differences in children’s memory and reading comprehension: An investigation of semantic and inhibitory deficits. Memory, 14,553-569. doi: 10.1080/09658210600624481

Cain, K., Oakhill, J., 8c Lemmon, K. (2004). Individual differences in the inference of word meanings from context: The influence of reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, and memory capacity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96,671-681. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.96.4.671

Cain, K., 8c Oakhill, J. V. (1999). Inference making ability and its relation to comprehension failure in young children. Reading and Writing, 11,489-503. doi:10.1023/A:1008084120205

Cain, K„ Oakhill, J. V., Barnes, M. A., & Bryant, P. E. (2001). Comprehension skill, inference-making ability, and their relation to knowledge. Memory & Cognition, 29, 850-859. doi:10.3758/BF03196414

Carlson, S. M. (2017, February). Shaping executive function skills: What can caregivers do? [Video file]. Retrieved from!

Carlson, S. M., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2008). Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Developmental Science, 11,282-298. doi: 10.111 l/j.l467-7687.2008.00675.x

Cartwright, K. B. (2002). Cognitive development and reading: The relation of reading-specific multiple classification skill to reading comprehension in elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 56-63. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.56

Cartwright, K. B. (2007). Hie contribution of graphophonological-semantic flexibility to reading comprehension in college students: Implications for a less simple view of reading. Journal of Literacy Research, 39, 173-193. doi: 10.1080/10862960701331902

Cartwright, K. B„ Bock, A. M-, Coppage, E. A., Hodgkiss, M. D., & Nelson, M. I. (2017). A comparison of cognitive flexibility and metalinguistic skills in adult good and poor comprehenders. Journal of Research in Reading, 40(2), 139-152. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.12101

Cartwright, K. B„ Coppage, E. A., Lane, A. B„ Singleton, T, Marshall, T. R„ & Bentivegna, C. (2017). Cognitive flexibility deficits in children with specific reading comprehension difficulties. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 50, 33-44. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.01.003

Cartwright, K. B., Marshall, T. R., Dandy, K. L., & Isaac, M. C. (2010). The development of graphophonological-semantic cognitive flexibility and its contribution to reading comprehension in beginning readers. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11, 61-85. doi: 10.1080/15248370903453584

Chevalier, N., St Blaye, A. (2016). Metacognitive monitoring of executive control engagement during childhood. Child Development, 87, 1264-1276. doi:10.1111/cdev,12537

Chevalier, N., & Blaye, N. (2008). Cognitive flexibility in preschoolers: Hie role of representation activation and maintenance. Developmental Science, 11,339-353. doi: 10.111 l/j.l467-7687.2008.00679.x

Cole, P., Duncan, L. G., 8c Blaye, A. (2014). Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills. Frontiers in Psychology: Cognitive Science, 5, 1-8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00565

Collins, A., & Koechlin, E. (2012). Reasoning, learning, and creativity: Frontal lobe function and human decision-making. PLoS Biology, 10(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pbio,1001293

Cragg, L„ 8c Nation, K. (2010). Language and the development of cognitive control. Topics in Cognitive Science, 2,631 -642. doi: 10.1111/j. 1756-8765.2009.01080.x

Dawson, P-, 8c Guare, R. (2010). Executive skills in children and adolescents: A practical guide to assessment and intervention (2nd ed. ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168. doi:10.1146/ annurev-psych-113011-143750

Elbro, C., 8c Buch-Iversen, I. (2013). Activation of background knowledge for inference making: Effects on reading comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17,435-452. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2013.774005

Flavell, J. H. (1963). The university series in psychology. The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, doi: 10.1037/11449-000

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906-911. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906

Flavell, J. H. (1985). John H. Flavell. American Psychologist, 40, 291-295.

Follmer, D. J. (2018). Executive function and reading comprehension: A meta-analytic review. Educational Psychologist, 53,42-60. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2017.1309295

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. B„ & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59-109. doi: 10.3102/00346543074001059

Garcia-Madruga, J. A., Elosua, M. R., Gil, L., Gomez-Veiga, I., Vila, J. 0., Orjales, I., ... Duque, G. (2013). Reading comprehension and working memory’s executive processes: An intervention study in primary school students. Reading Research Quarterly, 48, 155-174. doi:10.1002/rrq.44

Georgiou, G. K., & Das, J. P. (2018). Direct and indirect effects of executive function on reading comprehension in young adults. Journal of Research in Reading, 41,243-258. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.12091

Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (2000). The biology of the autistic syndromes (3rd ed.). London, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gnaedinger, E. K., Hund, A. M., & Hesson-Mclnnis, M. S. (2016). Reading-specific flexibility moderates the relation between reading strategy use and reading comprehension during the elementary years. Mind, Brain, and Education, 10,233-246. doi: 10.1111/mbe. 12125

Goldstein, S., & Naglieri, J. A., (Eds.) 2014. Handbook of executive functioning. Springer Science & Business Media, doi: 10.1007/978-1 -4614-8106-5

Guthrie, J. T, & Klauda, S. L. (2016). Engagement and motivational processes in reading. In P. Afflerbach (Ed.), Handbook of individual differences in reading: Reader, text, and context (pp. 41-53). New York, NY: Routledge.

Guthrie, J. T., Klauda, S. L„ & Ho, A. (2013). Modeling the relationships among reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement for adolescents. Reading Research Quarterly, 48, 9-26. doi:10.1002/rrq.035

Guthrie, J. T., Mason-Singh, A., & Coddington, C. S. (2012). Instructional effects of Concept- Oriented Reading Instruction on motivation for reading information text in middle school. In J. T. Guthrie, A. Wigfield, & S. L. Klauda (Eds.), Adolescents’ engagement in academic literacy (pp. 155-215). Retrieved from www.

Guthrie, J. T„ McRae, A. C., & Klauda, S. L. (2007). Contributions of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction to knowledge about interventions for motivations in reading. Educational Psychologist, 42, 237-250. doi: 10.1080/00461520701621087

Guthrie, J. T„ Wigfield, A., & You, W. (2012). Instructional contexts for engagement and achievement in reading. In S. Christensen, A. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 601-634). New York, NY: Springer Science.

Henderson, L., Snowling, M., & Clarke, P. (2013). Accessing, integrating, and inhibiting word meaning in poor comprehenders. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17,177-198. doi:10.1080/10888438.2011.652721

Jacob, R., & Parkinson, J. (2015). The potential for school-based interventions that target executive function to improve academic achievement: A review. Review of Educational Research, 85, 512-552. doi:10.3102/0034654314561338

Jang, H. (2008). Supporting students’ motivation, engagement, and learning during an uninteresting activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100,798-811. doi:10.1037/a0012841

Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: It is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102,588-600. doi: 10.1037/ aOO19682

Kieffer, M. J., Vukovic, R. K., 8r Berry, D. (2013). Roles of attention shifting and inhibitory control in fourthgrade reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 48, 333-348. doi:10.1002/rrq.54

Kintsch, W. (1988). The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A construction- integration model. Psychological Review, 95, 163-182. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.163

Latzman, R. D., Elkovitch, N.. Young, J., & Clark, L. A. (2010). Hie contribution of executive functioning to academic achievement among male adolescents. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32, 455-462. doi: 10.1080/13803390903164363

Markman, E. M. (1977). Realizing that you don’t understand: A preliminary investigation. Child Development, 48, 986. doi: 10.2307/1128350

Markman, E. M. (1979). Realizing that you don’t understand: Elementary school children’s awareness of inconsistencies. Child Development, 50,643-655. doi: 10.2307/1128929

Matte-Gagne, C., & Bernier, A. (2011). Prospective relations between maternal autonomy support and child executive functioning: Investigating the mediating role of child language ability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110,611-625. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.06.006

McGee, A., & Johnson, H. (2003). The effect of inference training on skilled and less skilled comprehenders. Educational Psychology, 23,49-59. doi: 10.1080/01443410303220

Melby-Lervag, M„ & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review.

Developmental Psychology, 49,270-291. doi:10.1037/a0028228

Meltzer, L. (2010). Promoting executive function in the classroom. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Meuter, R. F. I., & Allport, A. (1999). Bilingual language switching in naming: Asymmetrical costs of language selection. Journal of Memory and Language, 40,25-40. doi:10.1006/jmla,1998.2602

Meuwissen, A. S„ & Carlson, S. M. (2018). The role of father parenting in childrens school readiness: A longitudinal follow-up. Journal of Family Psychology, 32(5), 588-598. doi:10.1037/fam0000418

Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., 8t Wager, T. D. (2000). Ute unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41,49-100. doi:10.1006/cogp. 1999.0734

Monsell, S. (1996). Control of mental processes. In V. Bruce (Ed.), Unsolved mysteries of the mind: tutorial essays in cognition (pp. 93-148). Hove, UK: Erlbaum.

Myers, M., II., & Paris, S. G. (1978). Children’s metacognitive knowledge about reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 680-690. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.70.5.680

Novais-Santos, S„ Gee, J., Shah, M., Troiani, V., Work, M., & Grossman, M. (2007). Resolving sentence ambiguity with planning and working memory resources: Evidence from fMRI. Neuroimage, 37, 361-378. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.03.077

Oakhill, J., Hartt, J., & Samols, D. (2005). Levels of comprehension monitoring and working memory in good and poor comprehenders. Reading and Writing, 18,657-686. doi: 10.1007/sl 1145-005-3355-z

Pearson, P. D., & Dole, J. A. (1987). Explicit comprehension instruction: A review of research and a new conceptualization of instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 88,151-165. doi:10.1086/461530

Postle, B. R., Brush, L. N.. & Nick, A. M. (2004). Prefrontal cortex and the mediation of proactive interference in working memory. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 4,600-608. doi:10.3758/CABN.4.4.600

Pressley, M. (2005). Metacognition in literacy learning: Then, now, and in the future. In S. E. Israel, C. C. Block, K. L. Bauserman, & K. Kinnucan-Welsch (Eds.), Metacognition in literacy learning (pp. 391-411). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pressley, M„ Borkowski, J. G., & Schneider, W. (1987). Cognitive strategies: Good strategy users coordinate metacognition and knowledge. Annals of Child Development, 4, 89-129. Retrieved from www.researchgate. net/publication/47873647_Cognitive_Strategies_Good_Strategy_Users_Coordinate_Metacognition_and_ Knowledge

Pressley, M., Forrest-Pressley, D. L., Elliott-Faust, O. J., & Miller, G. E. (1985). Children’s use of cognitive strategies, how to teach strategies, and what to do if they can’t be taught. In M. Pressley & C. I. Brainerd (Eds.), Cognitive learning and memory in children (pp. 1-47). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Pribram, K. H. (1973). The primate frontal cortex—Executive of the brain. In K. K. H. Pribram & A. R. Luria (Eds.), Psychophysiology of the frontal lobes (pp. 293-314). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Reeve, J. (2012). A self-determination theory perspective on student engagement. In S. Christensen, A. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 149-173). New York, NY: Springer Science.

Reeve, J., Bolt, E., & Cai, Y. (1999). Autonomy-supportive teachers: How they teach and motivate students.

Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 537-548. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.91.3.537

Reeve, J., & Jang, H. (2006). What teachers say and do to support students’ autonomy during a learning activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98,209-218. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.209

Reeve, J., Jang, H., Carrell, D., Jeon, S., & Barch, J. (2004). Enhancing students’ engagement by increasing teachers’ autonomy support. Motivation and Emotion, 28,147-169. doi:10.1023/B:MOEM.0000032312.95499.6f

Reeve, J., Jang, H., Hardre, P., & Omura, M. (2002). Providing a rationale in an autonomy-supportive way as a strategy to motivate others during an uninteresting activity. Motivation and Emotion, 26, 183-207. doi:10.1023/A:1021711629417

Roebers, C. M., & Feurer, E. (2016). Linking executive functions and procedural metacognition. Child Development Perspectives, 10,39-44. doi:10.1111/cdep. 12159

Ryan, R. M„ & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55,68-78. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). Promoting self-determined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and well-being. In K. Wenzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 171-195). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Sesma, H. W, Mahone, E. M., Levine, T., Eason, S. H., & Cutting, L. E. (2009). Ute contribution of executive skills to reading comprehension. Child Neuropsychology, 15, 232-246. doi: 10.1080/09297040802220029

Shiffrin,R.M.,&Schneider,W. (1977). Controlled andautomatichuman information processing:II.Perceptuallearning, automatic attending and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84,127-190. doi:10.1037//0033-295x.84.2.127

Souvignier, E., & Mokhlesgerami, J. (2006). Using self-regulation as a framework for implementing strategy instruction to foster reading comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 16, 57-71. doi: 10.1016/j. learninstruc.2005.12.006

Taboada Barber, A., Buehl, M. M., Beck, J. S., Ramirez, E. M., Gallagher, M„ & Archer, C. J. (2018). Literacy in social studies: The influence of cognitive and motivational practices on the reading comprehension of english learners and non-english learners. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 34, 79-97. doi:10.1080/10573569. 2017.1344942

Taboada Barber, A., Buehl, M. M., Kidd, J., Sturtevant, E., Richey, L. N., & Beck, J. (2015). Reading engagement in social studies: Exploring the role of a social studies literacy intervention on reading comprehension, reading self-efficacy, and engagement in middle school students with different language backgrounds. Reading Psychology, 36, 31-85. doi: 10.1080/02702711.2013.815140

Taboada Barber, A., Cartwright, K. B., Stapleton, L., Klauda, S. L., Archer, C., 8c Smith, P. (2019). The role of higher order skills, executive functioning, and reading engagement in the reading comprehension of English learners and English speakers. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Vallotton, C„ 8c Ayoub, C. (2011). Use your words: Tire role of language in the development of toddlers’ selfregulation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(2), 169-181. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.09.002

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., 8c Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: Hie synergistic effects of intrinsic goal contents and autonomy-supportive contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87,246-260. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.87.2.246

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W, Soenens, B., 8c Matos, L. (2005). Examining the motivational impact of intrinsic versus extrinsic goal framing and autonomy- supportive versus internally controlling communication style on early adolescents’ academic achievement. Child Development, 76, 483-501. doi: 10.111 l/j,1467-8624.2005.00858.x

Vaughn, S., Martinez, L. R., Linan-Thompson, S., Reutebuch, C. K., Carlson, C. D., 8c Francis, D. J. (2009). Enhancing social studies vocabulary and comprehension for seventh-grade English language learners: Findings from two experimental studies. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2(4), 297-324.

Wagner, R. K., Schatschneider, C., 8c Phythian-Sence, C. (Eds.). (2009). Beyond decoding: The behavioral and biological foundations of reading comprehension. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Wingfield, A., 8c Grossman, M. (2006). Language and the aging brain: Patterns of neural compensation revealed by functional brain imaging. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96, 2830-2839. doi: 10.1152/jn.00628.2006

Yuill, N.. 8c Joscelyne, T. (1988). Effect of organizational cues and strategies on good and poor comprehenders’ story understanding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 152-158. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.80.2.152

Yuill, N.. 8c Oakhill, J. (1988). Effects of inference awareness training on poor reading comprehension. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2,33-45. doi:10.1002/acp.2350020105

Zabrucky, K., 8c Ratner, H. H. (1986). Children’s comprehension monitoring and recall of inconsistent stories. Child Development, 57, 1401-1418. doi: 10.2307/1130419

<<   CONTENTS   >>

Related topics