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Psychological Perspectives on Radicalization

IntroductionWhy is studying radicalization important?A brief historical overview of terrorismThree points of clarificationScope and outline of the bookBibliographyWhat is radicalization?IntroductionDefinition of radicalizationDifferent radical groupsNationalistic/separatist groupsExtreme right-wing groupsExtreme left-wing groupsSingle-issue groupsExtreme religiously motivated groupsSummary and discussionReferencesDescribing the elephant when you are blindIntroductionWhat it takes to have a good measureAn overview of methods that are commonly usedCase studies and interviewsExperimental workSurveysSome upcoming methods to study radicalizationNetwork analysisBig dataSummaryRecommended readingReferencesThe stages of radicalizationOf staircases, straitjackets, and conveyor belts - criticism of earlier phase modelsRadicalization as a puzzle: Complex (phase?) modelsPyramid model(s) of radicalizationReconciling complexity and temporalitySimple yet complex: Toward a new phase model of radicalizationVulnerability phaseGroup phaseAction phaseConclusionEndnotesReferencesWanted: RadicalIntroductionGender, age, education, IQ, and marital statusGender and ageMarital statusEducation and povertyPsychopathology, behavioral disorders, and personalityPsychological needsIdentity seekersJustice seekersSignificance seekersSensation seekersConclusionRecommended readingReferencesPsychological aspects of radical groupsIntroductionThree basic processes in (radical) groups: Categorization, us vs. them, and moral in-group superioritySocial influence processesGroup processes to prepare people for a violent attackSummaryReferencesThe last strawIntroductionWhat are trigger factors?Trigger factors in the personal realmTrigger factors in the context of groupsTrigger factors in societySummary and conclusionsRecommended readingReferencesResilience against radicalization and deradicalizationIntroductionWhat is resilience?Origin of the term and general definitionResilience in the context of (de)radicalizationThinking, feeling, and behaving: Predictive factors of resilience against radicalizationResilience against deradicalizationSummaryEndnotesRecommended readingReferencesEXIT! The psychology of deradicalization and disengagementIntroductionDisengagement versus deradicalizationDeradicalization step by stepDeradicalization and disengagement in the action phaseDeradicalization and disengagement in the group phasePreventing radicalization in the vulnerability phaseSummaryRecommended readingReferencesEight lessons for dealing with radicalizationIntroductionLesson 1: Realize that radicalization is complex but not exoticLesson 2: Know your problem and dilemmasLesson 3: Get out, connect, and (net)work togetherLesson 4: Make a thorough analysis of the risks of radicalizationLesson 5: Keep your eye on the needsLesson 6: Resilience, resilience, resilienceLesson 7: Have a compelling story -and know when to tell itLesson 8: Keep doing your job, and do it wellReferences

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