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Development of Adult Thinking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Cognitive Development and Adult Lea

I: Adult cognitive and moral developmentFrom multiperspective to contextual integrative thinking in adulthood: considerations on theorisation of adult thinking and its place as a component of wisdomTheoretical background: basic conceptsChange as a core concept in development and learningThe development of adult thinking: starting points for modern researchPiaget, Perry; Kohlberg, Gilligan, and the development of thinking: logic, knowledge, and moralsPostformal and relativistic-dialectical thinking in adulthoodContextual integrative thinking as a form of adult thinking and a component of wisdomOntological pre-understanding and adult thinkingContextual integrative thinking and wisdom researchConclusionsNoteReferencesIntegrating epistemic knowledge and logical reasoning skills in adult cognitive developmentIntroductionDevelopment of reasoning skillsReasoning at the level of formal operationsDevelopment of epistemic knowledgeDevelopmental approachEpistemological resources approachConnections between the two main approaches to cognitive skills: an example of higher education studentsHow to enhance adults' thinking skills?NotesReferencesPersonal epistemologies and social representations: and how they meet in people’s conceptions of the origin of human speciesIntroductionThe development of personal epistemologiesThe significance of personal epistemologies in everyday lifeSocial representations: everyday, common-sense theories of groupsHow personal epistemologies and social representations help us understand how people make sense of the origin of their speciesConclusions: social representations and personal epistemologies in making sense of the human originNotesReferencesDuties and responsibilities in adulthood: integrating care and justice perspectivesIntroductionKohlberg's stages in justice reasoning developmentNeo-Kohlbergian view on moral developmentDevelopment towards postconventional justice reasoningCare and justice as different modes of moral reasoningLevels of care reasoningCare and justice in everyday moral reasoningAcknowledgementsNoteReferencesBroadening the view of morality, and a study of moral developmentIntroductionFrom two to three moralitiesThree moralities, culture, and developmentFrom three to five: moral foundations theoryFive moralities and developmentConclusions and challengesNoteReferencesII: Perspectives of adult learningAdult learners and theories of learningLearning in adulthood: an introductionPerspectives on philosophical backgrounds of learning theoriesIndividual level cognitive theories of adult learningIndividual level motivational, metacognitive, and regulation theories of adult learningConceptions and beliefs as fostering or impeding adult learning on an individual levelSocial and cultural level mechanisms of adult learningAdult learning in context - an example of the learning of broad scientific thinking in higher educationReferencesDeveloping learning and teaching practices for adults: perspectives from conceptual change and metacognition researchTheoretical issues concerning adult learning - Combining conceptual change and metacognition research to adult developmentConceptual change: enrichment and radical conceptual change - What does the metacognition research say?How are personal epistemologies related to metacognition and conceptual change learning?Examples of adult learners' conceptual change processesMedical students and the cardiovascular systemStudent teachers' challenges in understanding photosynthesisLearning environments and adult learners - How to support conceptual change and metacognitive processes in adult education?Learning strategies, learning materials, and critical academic reading, alone and in groupsDiscussionNoteReferencesTacit knowledge and knowing at the core of individual and collective expertise and professional actionIntroductionCharacteristics of tacit knowledgeElaborating skills and tacit knowledgeCompetencies and tacit knowledgeWays to explicate tacit knowledgePerspectives on argumentation of tacit knowledgeContextuality of tacit knowledgeTacit knowledge as individual and collective phenomenaTacit knowledge as a product and processThe structure of the process of tacit knowingDiscussion: the relationship between tacit knowledge and expertiseAcknowledgementsNoteReferencesProfessional expertise, integrative thinking, wisdom, and phronēsisIntroductionDevelopment of expertise: the role of complex problems, multiple perspectives, and integrative thinkingIntegrative thinkingWisdom models and their connections to research on professional expertiseWisdom as phronesis: philosophical backgroundsToward a synthesis of expertise, adult cognitive development, and phronesisConclusion: integrative model of wisdom in professional practice and expertiseReferencesIII: Open questions and new approachesChallenges in exploring individual’s conceptions of knowledge and knowing: examples of research on university studentsIntroductionA Short history of investigating individuals' conceptions of knowledge and knowingFrom interviews to questionnaires and problem-solving tasksAddressing concerns about self-report measuresA need for the multiple methods approachMeasuring the individual's conception of knowledge and knowing in actionTheoretical challengesConclusions and recommendations for further studiesReferencesSystems thinking and adult cognitive developmentIntroductionSystems thinkingTowards systems theoriesThree systems paradigmsSystems paradigms and adult thinking researchDynamic systems paradigm: self-organising and self-referential systemsSelf-organising systemsAutopoiesis and self-referential systemsTheory of postformal thoughtConclusionsNotesReferencesLogical contradiction, contrary opposites, and epistemological relativism: critical philosophical reflections on the psychological models of adult cognitive developmentIntroductionProblems in describing adult cognitive development: philosophical reflectionsAdult thinking as development from absolutism to relativistic thinkingPhilosophical and psychological epistemologyDialectical thinkingContradictory and contrary opposites in a philosophical analysis of dialectical thinkingEpistemological relativism and integrationLiving without certaintyConclusionsNotes

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