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Advances in Paleoimaging: Applications for Paleoanthropology, Bioarchaeology, Forensics, and Cultura

Photography Associated with Paleoimaging: With Notes on Videography, LiDAR, Ground Penetrating Radar, and 3D Surface ScanningPhotographyVideographyLight Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)Ground Penetrating RadarD Surface ScansSummaryReferencesEndoscopy in Anthropological and Archaeological ApplicationsDescription of Method and RationaleInstrumentationMedical versus Industrial EndoscopesAnatomy of a Video EndoscopeLight SourceCamera Control UnitBiopsy and Retrieval ToolsData RecordingLimitations of MethodTechnologic Limitations Associated with EndoscopyLimitations of PersonnelReferencesXRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)Introduction and RationalePrinciple of OperationInstrumentationData Recording/ReportingQualitative ApproachQuantitative ApproachSemi-Quantitative ApproachLimitationsPlane Radiography, Digital Radiography, Mammography, Tomosyntheses, and FluoroscopyTerminologyOriginProduction of X-RaysX-Ray PropertiesX-Ray SourceAnodes, Heat Units, and Focal SpotsImage Receptor: FilmFilm ProcessingFilm LimitationsDigital Image Receptor SystemsMammography EquipmentTube DesignPositioning Objects for Plane RadiographyDisadvantages of Plane Radiography and Possible Means to Overcome ThemReferencesContrast MediaA Multimodality Contrast Media—Bruce A. Young, Solomon Segal, James Adams, and Kyler DouglasAcknowledgmentsReferencesIndustrial RadiographyRadiation SourcesImage ReceptorAdvantages and Disadvantages of CR and DRReferenceComputed Tomography (CT), Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT), Micro-CT, and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)Computed Tomography—Gerald J. ConloguekVpmAExposure TimeDetector WidthNumber of DetectorsPitch and Helical PitchField of View (FOV)AlgorithmsWindowingData ManipulationRegion-of-InterestMeasurementFiltersSlice ThicknessMaximum Intensity Projections and Minimal Intensity ProjectionsD Image Manipulation/3D AlgorithmsEstablishing ThresholdsClippingCuttingSegmentationFly-ThroughMicro-CT—Andrew J. NelsonMicro-CT ScanningDefinitionHistoryTypes of Micro-CT ScannersResolutionClinical CT Compared to Micro-CTImage Artifacts in Micro-CTCurrent and Future DevelopmentsConclusionsCone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)—Alan LurieRecommendationsReferencesMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)Development of Study StrategiesIntroductionSection 1 Ethical ConsiderationsSection RationaleEthics DefinedHighlights for Cross-Disciplinary Codes of EthicsEthics in PracticePre-Research EnvironmentActive-Research EnvironmentObjectives for Developing Imaging Study StrategySummaryReferencesSection 2 Determining Imaging NeedsHas the Object(s) Been Radiographed in the Past?What Is the Composition of the Object(s)?What Is the Size of the Object(s)?What Is the Required Orientation of the Object(s)?What Are the Study Objectives?Are There Mobility Limitations?How Many Objects Are Included in the Project?What Are the Characteristics of the Location of the Study?What Utilities Are Required by the Imaging System and What is Available?What Are the Characteristics of the Proposed Work Area? Radiation Safety PlanWhat Are the Availability and Access Limitations to the Objects?What Funding May Be Available for the Project?What Is the Availability of Radiographic and Related Technologies for a Study?Imaging Needs Determination Applied, an ExampleDetermining CostsAdditional ConsiderationsSection 3 Workflow (Throughput)—Systems Design for Field ResearchConsiderations When Multiple Imaging Methods Are EmployedSection 4 Radiographic Data Formats, Graphic Software, and Online Data RepositoriesIntroductionCommon 2D Image FormatsD Image FormatsImage StacksSoftwareD Image RepositoriesObstaclesIMPACTConclusionsA Sampling of Online Repositories of Paleoimaging DataReferencesSection 5 Interpretation StrategiesSection 6 Integration of Bioarchaeology and Bioarchaeology of Care ModelsBioarchaeologyBioarchaeology of CareReferencesSection 7 Field Paleoimaging Safety and Health ChallengesIntroductionPhysical Hazards—or—If It Can Go Wrong, It Just MayHann to the Self or TeamEquipment SafetyKnow the Current CultureLocal RitualsGovernmental and Political CultureKnow the Ancient CultureClimatic Conditions and the Physical EnvironmentBiological HazardsPractical Considerations and Challenges to Field PaleoimagingChallenges to Field PaleoimagingLogistics as a Challenge to Field PaleoimagingSummaryBibliographySection 8 Radiation Protection and SafetyIntroductionBiological Impact of RadiationRadiation Protection LegislationMeasurement of Radiation DosePractical Radiation ProtectionNotificationRadiation Risk AssessmentRadiation Protection Plans and ProceduresThe Radiation AreaDistanceShieldingTimeRadiation Protection in the FieldWorked ExampleReferencesAppendix A: Radiography Field Data SheetAppendix B: Recording Form for Multi-Detector Computed TomographyAppendix C: Micro-CT Recording FormAppendix D: Recording Form for XRFAppendix E: Recording Form for Endoscopic Examination of Mummified or Skeletal Remains (see Chapter 2)Appendix F: Radiologist Report Form—Preliminary InterpretationsAppendix G: Example of Risk Assessment Documentation (see Chapter 9 Section 7)Appendix H: Expedition Kit List—Papua New GuineaAppendix I: Statement of HealthAppendix J: Radiation Protection Examples from the Oxford Project (see Chapter 9 Section 8)

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