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What is empathy?Empathic phenomenaEmotional contagionAffective empathyCognitive empathy, or perspective takingSympathy or empathic concernHow empathy is measuredTake-home messageNoteFurther readingsReferencesEmpathy and understanding othersKnowing other mindsSimulation and pretending to be someone elseMirror neurons and low-level simulationPutting the ‘perspective’ back into perspective takingIntrospection, perspective, and self-understandingCan we ever really understand others from the inside?What about transformative experience?Take-home messageNotesFurther readingsReferencesEmpathy and feeling for and with othersVicarious affectEmpathic affectEmpathy and personal distress in psychologySympathyActing together: the origin of vicarious affectCooperation and the evolution of sympathyAgainst sharingTake-home messageFurther readingsReferencesEmpathy and moralityFellow feeling, or sympathy, in Hume and SmithModern viewsCriticisms of the moral import of empathyThe empirical evidenceDefending empathyCautious conclusions about empathy and moralityTake-home messageNoteFurther readingReferencesEmpathy and artEinfühlungRe-enactment of the inorganicEmotional contagion of expressionEmpathizing with charactersEmpathy with the artistSentimental educationTake-home messageFurther readingReferencesEmpathy and mental disorderMental disorder and learning from itPsychopaths and affective responsesPsychopaths and cognitive empathyAutism and empathic responsesAutism and moral outlookDegrees of empathyTake-home messageNoteFurther readingsReferencesThe future of empathy studiesThe empathy processEmpathy = fear and avoidance?Other overlooked features of empathy: perspectives and sharingTake-home messageReferencesGlossary

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