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An Introduction to Psychological Tests and Scales

What is a good psychological measure?Aims of this bookFeatures of good psychological measuresStatement of what the scale measuresJustification for the scaleHow the preliminary pool of items is drawn upDescription of sample used for testingMeans, standard deviations and ranges (norms)ReliabilityForms of reliability assessmentReliability statisticsA note on statistics packagesValidity statisticsThe scaleSummaryAppendix 1: Examples of test and scale presentationExample 1. Narcissistic Personality InventoryExample 2. Individual Responsibility (IR) measureExample 3. Structure of Prayer ScaleExample 4. Quality of Cognitive Therapy ScaleA guide to finding and using existing tests and scalesFinding the scaleKey featuresCopyrightTest user restrictions and trainingTestee welfarePros and cons of using an existing scaleUsing the scaleSummaryAppendix 2: Some useful tests –An introductory reviewMeasures of personality, mood and psychopathologyThe Big Five and the Big SixMeasures of social attitudes and cognitionsMeasures of other individual differencesMeasures of social desirabilityWritingDefining what you want to measureCollecting itemsHow many items?Sources of itemsChecking itemsProducing the preliminary questionnaire or testAnonymity, ethics and the lawDemographic and other data: Deciding what is neededResponse formatsA suggested formatSummaryTestingDeciding on a sample(s) and reducing sample biasMethods of sampling: Random and quasi-randomMethods of sampling: Quota/target groupMethods of sampling: Convenience and snowballResponse ratesSample size and statistical potverRecruiting methodsEmailSocial mediaSurvey hostsEthical issuesTestingGroup or individual testing?Thanking, de-briefing and follow-upSummaryAppendix 4: Ethical guidelines for testingSources of guidelinesGeneral principlesCoding, making the database, and reliability analysisCoding, scoring and data entryCodingResponses that do not need codingInformation that needs codingWhen to calculate total scoresMake a databaseCheck for accuracyReverse scoring and saving the databaseSelecting reliable itemsThe first reliability statisticsImproving reliability of the scaleDescriptive statistics (norms) for the final scaleSummary of steps for data entry and reliabilityFactor and principal-components analysesSummaryAppendix 5: ReliabilityNotes on statistics packagesAppendix 5.1: Types of data, coding, and statisticsAppendix 5.2: An example of codingAppendix 5.3: Making and checking a database in SPSS for WindowsEntering dataChecking the databaseReplacing missing dataAppendix 5.4: Reliability analysis in SPSS for WindowsAppendix 5.5: Improving reliabilityAppendix 5.6: Factor and principal components analyses in SPSS for WindowsThe final scale and its validationDescriptive statistics (norms)ValidityCriterion validityConcurrent validity; comparison with existing testsContent and face validityPredictive validityConstruct validityConfounded variablesPresenting the scaleSummaryAppendix 6: Computation and validityAppendix 6.1: Computing total scores on your measureAppendix 6.2: Criterion validity using ait unrelated t-testAppendix 6.3: Concurrent validity: Using SPSS to calculate correlationsAppendix 6.4: Criterion and predictive validity: One-way analysis of variance in SPSS, including comparisons between groupsTwo-way analyses of variance and other more complicated designsAppendix 6.5: Confounded variables: Loglinear analysis, logistic regression, analysis of covariance and multiple regression analysisLoglinear analysisLogistic regressionAnalysis of covarianceMultiple regression analysisUseful websites

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