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A Citizen’s Guide to the Political Psychology of Voting

The Political Psychology of VotingWhy Voters?The Lau and Redlawsk FrameworkThe Role of Classic Research in Voter Decision-makingConclusionNotesVoter Decision-Making as a ProcessGoalsSome Ideal-Type VotersWilliam R.: The Rational VoterAnne D.: The Constrained Rational VoterTeresa C.: The Fast and Frugal VoterWarren M.: The Identity VoterHerbert S.: The Intuitive VoterBethany A.: The Emotions VoterA Process-Oriented Framework for Voter Decision-MakingTypes of Information Processing StrategiesDecision-Making ModelsConclusionNotesThe Voter’s Information EnvironmentThe Information Environment as Task DemandsExperimenting with Task DemandsVote Choice and QualityThe 2016 Task Demands and Information Environment: Unique or More of the Same?Indicators of Task Demands in 2016Sources of InformationPublic Opinion PollsOctober SurpriseTraditional MediaPolitical Advertising“Fake News”Candidate GenderConclusionNotesGood Decisions are Rational Decisions. Or are they?What is a Rational Voter?The Challenges of Being a Rational VoterIs Rationality Realistic?The Irrational Voter: Why Turn Out To Vote?ConclusionNotesThe Constrained Rational VoterWhat Is Really Going On In People’s Heads?The Problem of Limited KnowledgeChecking in with Anne D.The Retrospective VoterAnother Approach: The Model 3 Fast and Frugal VoterConclusion: Addressing Key Rational Choice ProblemsNotesOur Identities MatterOf Baby Boomers, Soccer Moms, and the White Working ClassIdentity PoliticsModel 2: Partisan Identity—The Traditional ViewModel 2: The Identity VoterSocialization, Motivated Reasoning, and PartisanshipPartisan Identity and Confirmatory Decision-MakingCognitive ConsistencyNegative PartisanshipMotivated ReasoningRace and Ethnicity as Voting IdentitiesPartisanship as Social IdentityRace and IdentityGeographic IdentityGender IdentityConclusionNotesThe Intuitive VoterA More Realistic ApproachHerbert S.—Good Enough is Good EnoughModel 4: Intuitive VotingWhy Use Intuitive Strategies?Hallmarks of Intuitive StrategiesWhat Can Go Wrong with Heuristics?When Do Heuristics Work?ConclusionNotesEmotions and VotingTwo Models of EmotionsEmotions and the 2016 ElectionEconomic AnxietyDisgust and OutrageExcitement and ResentmentPride and HopeBethany A.: The Emotions VoterEmotions and Decision-MakingAffective Intelligence: Some Emotions Make You Smarter—Others May NotConclusionNotesSo, What Do Voters Do?

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