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Latin America in the World: An Introduction

One: OverviewOverview: Latin America and Its SubregionsMesoamericaThe Hispanic CaribbeanThe Bolivarian RepublicsAndean Latin AmericaBrazilThe Southern ConeReferences and Further ResearchLatin American Studies: A Multidisciplinary Field Comes of AgeTwo: FundamentalsHistoryLegacies of the Iberian Past, 1492–1825Portuguese Brazilian BeginningsWhite-Indian Relations and the Problem of Indian Forced LaborBlack Ibero-Americans in Slavery and FreedomPolitics and Church–State RelationsThe Colonial Economy: Iberian Mercantilism in Theory and PracticeEarly National Latin America, 1792–1870The Independence Struggles, 1792–1825Chaos and Caudillismo, 1825–1870The Era of Liberal Positivist Oligarchies, 1870–1930The “Autocratic Republic” of Augusto Leguía: Peru, 1919–1930Brazil’s Positivist Republic, 1889–1930Nationalism, Populism, and Social Revolution, 1930–1964Right-Wing Military Dictatorships, 1964–1989Contemporary Latin America, 1989–2020References and Further ResearchLanguageSpanishIndigenous Languages in Spanish TerritoriesPortuguese and the Indigenous Languages of BrazilOther European LanguagesHybrid LanguagesEnglish in Latin AmericaReferences and Further ResearchThree: The Global ContextGlobalization in Latin America: BackgroundHistorical BackgroundReferences and Further ResearchGlobalization in Latin America: A Tale of Four CountriesChileArgentinaBrazilBoliviaReferences and Further ResearchFour: Case StudiesIntroduction to the Case StudiesChange Agents: Women and the Mexican RevolutionCauses and Background of the Mexican RevolutionSoldiers and SoldaderasFeminists and Change AgentsThe Revolution’s LegacyReferences and Further ResearchThe Dissident Cosmos: The Andean World Across Cultural ProductionsTahuantinsuyu: The Cosmos before the ConquestThe Colonial Period: The Ordered City of Cuzco, 1532–1823The National Period: Liberal Positivism and Indigenismo, 1823–1945The Andean World in the Post-War Era: Literature, Visual Arts, and Cinema, 1945–1990The Andean World in Contemporary Latin America, 1990–2017References and Further ResearchThe New Latin American Cinema: The Movement and Its AftermathNew Trends Appear in BrazilArgentina’s Fernando Birri and Italian NeorealismRevolutionary Cinema Blossoms at Cuba’s ICAICCinema Novo Arises in BrazilThird Cinema in ArgentinaThe NLAC in Other CountriesThe NLAC DiversifiesThe AftermathReferences and Further ResearchMagical Realism: The World Within and Beyond Latin AmericaGenealogyLatin American Magical Realists AbroadMarketing History of One Hundred Years of SolitudeMagical Realism Transposed: Indo-British and Canadian Magical RealismSalman RushdieRobert Kroetsch and Jack HodginsReferences and Further ResearchLa Malinche: A Look at Gender in the History of MexicoThe “Facts” of HistoryHistorical and Literary InterpretationsReferences and Further ResearchGlobalization and Neoliberal Reform: A Case Study of Mexico and ArgentinaMexico: From Revolutionary Nationalism to Moderate Neoliberalism, 1917–2013Argentina: From Peronist Nationalism to Neoliberal Reform, 1943–2012Epilogue: Neoliberal Reform and Globalization in Continental PerspectiveReferences and Further ResearchThe Socialist Alternative: Cuba and VenezuelaSocialism in CubaHistorical BackgroundThe Revolution in Power: Economic and Social ReformsSocialism and Development: The Failure of Charisma and Experimentation, 1959–1968Institutionalization, Crisis, and RevivalCuban Socialism: Successes and FailuresSocialism in VenezuelaHistorical Background: The Rise and Fall of a Two-Party DemocracyThe First Chávez AdministrationBolivarian Socialism: Hugo Chávez, Oil Boom, and Revolution, 2001–2013An Epilogue: The Disastrous Presidency of Nicolás MaduroReferences and Further ResearchHard-to-Pick Fruit: Transforming the Landscape of Poverty in BrazilRecent Changes in Poverty and InequalityInequality and Social ExclusionPolicy Changes: Providing Brazilians a Basic Social FoundationChanging Dynamics: Enhancing Opportunity and InclusionMore Oranges for All: The Role of Productivity in Reducing PovertyHow to Get That Ladder to Pick the High-Hanging Fruit?References and Further ResearchAbout the Editors and Contributors

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