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In the Physics field, the interviewed excellence researchers were unanimous in answering that there are different ways to create a research group at the university. They enumerated the most common alternatives to them, trivial, without mystery. They said that in Physics a research group can be inherited. That is, namely a successor researcher starts to lead the group because of the withdrawal of the former leader—for retirement, new job, or even death. So, the first way to create a research group in Physics is ready to receive it as if it were an inheritance of the principal researcher, the senior researcher. On the other hand, there may be an institutional invitation to form a new research network. For example, the researcher to join a new job at another university receives an invitation to create a new group with his/her students and advisees. In this case, respondents say the institution is looking for expertise, collection-raised search features with some ease by the experienced researcher, researcher excellence, and recognition. The institution catches and hunts new brains in the academic market because they need individuals with prestige who can contribute to strengthening the evaluation score of the institution in the rankings. The institution may be interested in setting up a laboratory in the researcher’s area of expertise or seek to properly equip preexisting laboratories while the researcher offers his/her ability to manage a new group. In their speeches, Physics researchers also point out that a new group can be formed by the branching, differentiation, and/or splitting. From an old research group, new groups can emerge. They explained that this situation, resulting from a specialization or the consolidation of a new work or new subfield knowledge, is natural. For example, new groups can be created with the opening of new branches in theoretical physics or experimental physics. In general, new fields of research can be considered as motivators to break with older research arrangements. Such cases are made explicit by young researchers, beginners, sometimes former students, who have become university professors after studying abroad, taking postdoctoral positions or establishing partnerships with companies.

On the other hand, they said they form groups and now they begin to refer to networks, marked by multidisciplinary connections. They cite, for example, Physics connections with different disciplines, such as Biology, Economics (Econophysics), Anthropology, and other Social Sciences.

There might be several reasons to establish research and collaboration networks or even new research groups in Physics. One reason may be linked to cooperation or international cooperation: (1) a meet research announcement solicits two or more countries; (2) when a theme is not sufficiently unraveled, international cooperation is necessary; and (3) the search for related groups, research partners in other countries in the vicinity of each region or further away depending on the subject to be searched. In the case of Brazil, just for mentioning, another way to create new research networks is by relying on the incentive of funding agencies (CNPq, Capes, FINEP). These agencies publish on occasion edicts for public funds to finance joint interinstitutional and international research— Brazilian groups with other countries, universities, industries, businesses, foundations, and other stakeholders.

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