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  • 1. For Robert Ebel (2000), the tradition of exams for public administration in China would date back to earlier centuries, under Emperor SHUN, about 2375 B.C. The purpose of the exam was to reward the personal effort and not the hereditary family privilege.
  • 2. 1797 Fac Simile from Real Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra, Edition Funda^ao Gulbenkian, s/d.
  • 3. “Historically, most educational accreditation activity in the United States has been overseen by a set of six regional accrediting agencies that were established in the late 19th and early 20th century to foster better articulation between secondary schools and higher education institutions, particularly to help colleges and universities evaluate prospective students” (https :// United_States) Accessed March 7, 2016.

US Accreditation—Accreditation in higher education is a collegial process of self-review and peer review for improvement of academic quality and public accountability of institutions and programs. This quality review process occurs on a periodic basis, usually every 3-10 years. Typically, it involves three major activities: a self-study by an institution or program using the standards or criteria of an accrediting organization; a peer review of an institution or program to gather evidence of quality; a decision or judgment by an accrediting organization to accredit, accredit with conditions or not accredit an institution or program. ( pdf/chea-at-a-glance_2015.pdf). Accessed March 7, 2016.

4. “In near future, we will have our own bibliometric data to make proper evaluations of our bibliographic production including our economic and social context and measure the results according to the priorities of S&T policies that correspond to our regional development.”

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