1 Later chapters in this book (especially Chapters 8 and 9) will take up some developmental perspectives on this issue.
2 Jeffrey Rubin (1996) introduced and explored this metaphor in his book Psychotherapy and Buddhism. The natural partnership between psychotherapy and Buddhist practice has also been explored by many writers in what is now an extensive professional literature.
3 In this book, I distinguish between solutions to problems which are figured out and those which are seemingly emergent (a way through).
4 The concept of “transcendent subjectivity” will be further defined and discussed in Chapter 8.
5 As in the instruction “relax, observe, allow”.
6 A very interesting discussion of this issue can be found in Bass’s (2001) paper, “Whose Unconscious Is It, Anyway?”
7 Freud famously described this quality of listening as evenly-suspended or hovering attention (Freud, 1912). Wilfred Bion’s description “listening without memory or desire”, is also frequently cited (Bion, 1967).
8 Readers with similar background may likely recognize the influences of (in alphabetical order) Andreas Angyal (1965); Joseph Bobrow (2010), Brandschaft et al. (2010), Heinz Kohut (1971; 1977), Rollo May (1983), Stephen Mitchell (2000), Mitchell and Aron (1999), Roy Schafer (1976; 1983; 1992), Donnel Stern (2003; 2010; 2015), Robert Stolorow (1980; 1992; 1994; 2007), John Welwood (2000), and D. W. Winnicott (1965a,b,c), among others.
9 The concept of “truth” also has different meanings. In Welwood (2000), Towards A Psychology of Awakening, he delineates conceptual truth (truths of the logical mind and science), experiential truth (thinking mind interacting with felt experience), and contemplative truth (deeper order of being beyond both thinking mind and felt experience). This is roughly equivalent to distinction in Buddhist philosophy between Relative and Absolute truth.
10 This method is taught by James Baraz, one of the guiding teachers at Spirit Rock Meditation Center, Woodacre, Calif.
11 “Depressogenic” cognitions.
12 In Rinzai Zen practice, asking paradoxical questions has been elaborated into the form of meditation called koan practice. Koans (“what is the sound of one hand clapping?”, etc.) are intended to exhaust the analytic intellect, readying the mind to receive experience spontaneously and intuitively.
13 Emptiness is an ontological construct, whereas inquiring deeply concerns itself with phenomenology and with epistemological questions.
14 In psychoanalytic language, “self-experience” and “representations of self and other”. These concepts are discussed and elaborated in Chapter 8.
15 Not to mention unknown layers of memory, etc. which are unconscious or ignored.
16 Both of these aspects—self-representations and self-experience—will be elaborated upon at length in Chapter 8.
17 This set of questions touches upon threats to self-representations: “narcissistic injuries”.
18 Important psychological dimensions of relationship and connection are explored at length in Chapter 6.
19 See Moffitt (2012) for a very useful discussion of this issue.
20 In Zen practice, people sometimes refer to these as “life koans”.
21 The quality of this experience is also conveyed by the Chinese straw finger puzzles which can be solved only by doing the counter-intuitive thing: pushing one’s fingers into the puzzle/trap rather than efforting at pulling them out.
22 In Buddhist terminology, basic manifestations of “dukkha.”
23 This concept is one of the major archetypes in Jungian psychology.
24 Stephen Batchelor takes up this theme in his book Living with the Devil (2004) where he explores in depth the mythic story of the Buddha’s encounter with Mara.
25 However, a case can be made for the fact that narratives need not be an impediment to the meditative goal of calm abiding if wise attention can be brought to them. The interested reader is referred to Jason Siff’s (2014) book about the role of thinking in meditation.
26 Before the time of the Buddha, there were two widely held beliefs: one, the idea that there was an eternal soul that survived death, and the other that Being was extinguished after death. The Buddha taught what became known as “the middle way”: neither eternalism nor nihilism. It recommended a stance of moderation which avoided both austerity and sensual indulgence. The middle way refers generally to dharma practice which balances opposite poles and extreme views.