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Men who strike or batter their partners have lower self-esteem and are more likely to have vulnerable self-concepts than do non-violent men (CDC, 2014; Stith et al., 2004). A remark, insult, or comment that might not affect someone else, may be interpreted as a slight, insult, or challenge to many violent men. As we discussed in Chapter 1, alcohol and most illicit drugs do not produce disinhibition or directly lead to violent behavior. Nonetheless, illicit drug use and alcohol misuse are highly correlated with IPV and abuse (Capaldi et al., 2012; Stith et al., 2004).

As with child abuse and neglect, there are almost as many personality disorders linked to IPV as there are publications on risk factors. There is not a great deal of consistency in the findings, however. Two important systematic reviews of risk factors for IPV focused on perpetrator depression as a moderate risk factor (Capaldi et al., 2012; Stith et al., 2004). Of all the various personality and mental health variables examined, conduct problems and antisocial behavior emerge as the strongest risk factors for partner violence (Capaldi et al., 2012; Hotaling & Sugarman, 1986).

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