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There has been significant change in Canada’s youth justice since the start of the millennium, with marked declines in rates of charging, youth custody, and more recently youth remand, while consistent with trends in other countries, the youth crime rate is slowly falling. The declines in rates of charging and incarceration are at least partially attributable to the enactment of new legislation, which has both restricted use of charging and incarceration. This also contributed to a change in the professional culture of police, prosecutors, and judges. While the increased use of diversion and community responses to youth offending in Canada are encouraging, there remain significant issues, including the high rate of involvement of Aboriginal and racialized youth in the justice system and lack of community-based resources for youth offenders in many communities.

Acknowledgments This chapter reports analyses of data provided by Statistics Canada. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the views of Statistics Canada. Preparation of this chapter was supported by a research grant to the second author from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

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