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Japan has one of the lowest crime rates in the world, with a stable criminal index, including incarceration rates. The total number of reported Penal Code cases has been stable for the last three decades, with recent declines. However, the number of arrested juveniles per 100,000 is at least 2.5 times (and a maximum of 5 times) of the number of the arrested adults per 100,000. To further elaborate, the proportion of the crime rate attributable to juveniles is relatively higher (20-45 % of the all arrested offenders) than in neighboring countries (South Korea and China), where this proportion is under 10 %>. For this reason, Japanese juvenile justice (and the subject of juvenile criminality) is of considerable interest to juvenile justice experts. This chapter focuses on the peculiar characteristics of Japanese juvenile crimes by analyzing the historical context of Japanese juvenile crime, juvenile crime statistics for in recent years, the institutional juvenile justice system, and recent juvenile justice trends.

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