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Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM)

VBM was developed by Wright et al. [315] and is an automated technique that allows evaluation of structural variations in the brain across many individuals without visual assessment or operator-dependent manual procedures. VBM detects differences in the local densities (tissue probabilities) of various tissue compartments throughout the brain without any a priori knowledge of regional differences in brain structure and function [13]. Whitwell documented well on the methods of VBM [309], and the description in this section is based on that work. In VBM, T1-weighted MR images (T1WI) are analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM). SPM is a statistical technique developed by Friston [89, 90] for examining differences in brain activity recorded during functional neuroimaging experiments using technologies such as fMRI or PET. It contains design matrix software for statistical analyses, statistical analyses, and visualization of the results, which was created by the Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience (part of the University College London) [ 265]. VBM is applied not only to assess normal human brain aging [64, 108, 314] but also to detect pathological changes in brain diseases.

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