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During the past decade, dMRI has drastically changed clinical procedures, primarily neurosurgical procedures. In addition to clinical applications, the field of neuroscience strongly benefits from dMRI. Recent research involving the “connectome” [266] has relied heavily on dMRI as the source data in addition to functional MRI. The increased temporal and spatial resolution provided by dMRI has the potential to reveal more details of brain anatomy and function.

Future directions in this field involve exploring the inference of microstructures in dMRI signals. One example is the CHARMED approach to modeling (Fig. 3.29) by Assaf et al. [19], which enables us to distinguish several components of fiber structures and is extendable to inference of fiber dimensions [20]. Thus, dMRI, which originally served to capture functional information pertaining to water diffusion, is currently involved in developments which may serve to further reveal the morphology and fine structures of the brain.

Complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Top

Fig. 3.28 Complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Top: Posterior view of 3D tract visualization. Bottom: Stereo pair with an axial section of T2-weighted image in top view [188]

Modeling fiber structures by CHARMED

Fig. 3.29 Modeling fiber structures by CHARMED

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