Intraoperative Assistance Information Image Display
Intraoperative surgical information display is an important function. There are two methodologies: (a) synchronized display and (b) reference display. In synchronized display, virtual views generated from a CA model are generated in synchrony with endoscope/forceps movement. The reference display method shows reference images during surgery. No synchronization with real organs is implemented.
If a surgeon moves an endoscope, corresponding views are generated from tracking results. A tip of a forceps is also displayed on a virtual view as a virtual forceps. Anatomical names are also overlain on virtual images for helping a surgeon to navigate patient anatomy. Figure 4.19 shows a situation where synchronized display is performed during gastrectomy. Figure 4.20 shows an example of bronchoscope navigation based on image registration.
Fig. 4.19 Example of surgical navigation based on synchronized display
Fig. 4.20 Example of bronchoscope navigation based on synchronized display
Reference Image Display
This display method shows reference images during surgery. Reference images are typically prerendered before surgery and displayed on a monitor or with an interactive display. Tablet devices are often used for reference image display (Fig.4.21).
Now it is possible to create 3D organ models for image display. Because a 3D print model can be observed during surgery without any devices, it is quite an intuitive display for a surgeon. Translucent models can represent internal structures of an organ. Such models can assist a surgeon in making decisions regarding
K. Mori et al.
Fig. 4.21 Example of reference image display using tablet device
Fig. 4.22 Example of 3D printed organ model and utilization during surgery
resection. It is also useful for improving communications among medical staff. Figure 4.22 shows an example of such 3D print model utilization during surgery.