1. Gert Biesta, “Education and the Democratic Person: Towards a Political Conception of Democratic Education,” Teachers College Record 109, no. 3 (2007): 740-769, 745.
2. Amy Gutmann, Democratic Education (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
3. Meira Levinson, The Demands of Liberal Education (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
4. Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson, Democracy and Disagreement (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998); Jurgen Habermas, Communication and the Evolution of Society (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1979).
5. Roger Soder, “Education for Democracy: The Foundation for Democratic Character,” in Developing Democratic Character in the Young, ed. R. Soder, J. Goodlad, and T. McMannon (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001), 182-206.
6. John Dewey, “Creative Democracy: The Task before Us,” in John Dewey: The Later Works, 1925-1953, Volume 14, ed. J. A. Boydston (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1976), 224-230. (Original work published 1939.)
7. Chris Edwards, “Federal Government: Too Big to Manage,” Gallup, Inc. “Government.” July 28, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/27286/Government.aspx
8. I thank Barrett Smith for reminding me that Patricia Hill Collins makes a powerful related comment: “Depending on where you stand, American democracy constitutes a reality, a promise, a possibility, or a problem.” Another Kind of Public Education (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2009), 7.
9. For more on using Dewey in this way, see Roudy W. Hildreth, “Word and Deed: A Deweyan Integration of Deliberative and Participatory Democracy,” New Political Science 34, no. 3 (2012): 295-320.
10. Hildreth, “Word and Deed: A Deweyan Integration of Deliberative and Participatory Democracy,” 299.
11. For more, see Michael J. Sandel, Democracy’s Discontent: America in Search of a Public Philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996, 25.
12. David Blacker, “More Than Test Scores: A Liberal Contextualist Picture ofEducational Accountability,” Educational Theory 53, no. 1 (2003): 1.
13. David F. Labaree, “Public Goods, Private Goods: The American Struggle over Educational Goals,” American Educational Research Journal 34, no. 1 (1997): 39-81.
14. Phil Boyle and Del Burns, Preserving the Public in Public Schools (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2012), 13-14; Christopher A. Lubienski and Sarah Theule Lubienski, The Public School Advantage: Why Public Schools Outperform Private Schools (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press), 2014.
15. Sarah M. Stitzlein, “Improving Public Schools through Parent Dissent: Opting Out of Tests, Demanding Alternative Curricula, Invoking Parent Trigger Laws, and Withdrawing Entirely,” Educational Studies 51, no. 1 (2015): 57-71; Sarah M. Stitzlein, “Curriculum and the Conscience of Parents,” Philosophy of Education (2013): 205-258.
16. Lubienski and Lubienski, The Public School Advantage.
17. David B. Tyack, Seeking Common Ground: Public Schools in a Diverse Society (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 151.
18. Gert Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand: Can the Democratic Potential of Accountability be Regained?” Educational Theory 54, no. 3 (2004): 235-236.
19. For more on this tension see Lorraine M. McDonnell, “Defining Democratic Purposes,” in Rediscovering the Democratic Purposes of Education. Studies in Government and Public Policy, ed. Lorraine M. McDonnell, P. Michael Timpane, and Roger Benjamin (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000).
20. Alia Wong and Terrance F. Ross, “When Teachers Cheat,” The Atlantic, April 2, 2015. https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/04/when-teachers-cheat/389384/.
21. Sarah M. Stitzlein, Walter Feinberg, Jennifer Greene, and Luis Miron, “The Illinois Project for Democratic Accountability,” Educational Studies 42, no. 2 (2007): 142.
22. Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand.”
23. I am drawing heavily on Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand.”
24. Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand.”
26. David J. Blacker, Democratic Education Stretched Thin: How Complexity Challenges a Liberal Ideal (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007).
27. Richard F. Elmore, “Agency, Reciprocity, and Accountability in Democratic Education,” in The Public Schools, ed. Susan Fuhrman, Marvin Lazerson and Annenberg Foundation Trust at Sunnylands (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 293.
29. For more about the decline in pedagogical concerns, see Don T. Martin, George E. Overholt, and Wayne J. Urban, Accountability in American Education: A Critique (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Book Co., 1976), 32.
30. Jeannie Oakes, Gary Blasi, and John Rogers, “Accountability for Adequate and Equitable Opportunities to Learn,” in Holding Accountability Accountable: What Ought to Matter in Public Education, ed. Kenneth A. Sirotnik (New York: Teachers College Press, 2004), 82-99.
31. Stitzlein, Feinberg, Greene, and Miron, “Illinois Project for Democratic Accountability” 139.
32. Krishnadev Calamur, “Jail Terms Handed to Most Atlanta Teachers Convicted in Cheating Scandal,” NPR, April 14, 2015. http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/04/ 14/399543049/atlanta-teachers-convicted-in-cheating-scandal-await-sentencing
33. Thanks to Kathleen Knight Abowitz for pointing out that this type of Republican largely silenced others who wanted to decrease federal involvement in education. It is that Republican view that has since become more prominent within the Libertarian and Tea Party movements.
34. For more about the split in the Democratic Party, see Patrick McGuinn, “The Federal Role in Educational Equity: The Two Narratives of School Reform and the Debate over Accountability,” in Education, Justice, and Democracy, ed. Danielle Allen and Rob Reich (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013).
35. Steven Ward rightly points out that neoliberals have replaced “public” with “stakeholders” or “taxpayers”in the phrase “accountable to the public.” This moves it from political to economic terminology. Steven C. Ward, Neoliberalism and the Global Restructuring of Knowledge and Education, Vol. 60 (New York: Routledge, 2012), 7.
36. Kathleen Knight Abowitz, Publics for Public Schools: Legitimacy, Democracy, and Leadership (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Press, 2013), 2.
37. Ibid., 45.
38. Walter Feinberg, “The Idea of a Public Education,” Review of Research in Education 36, no. 1 (2012): 1-22.
39. John Dewey, The Public and Its Problems (New York: H. Holt and Company, 1927), 15-16.
40. Ibid., 12-13.
41. Ibid., 167.
42. Ibid., 146.
43. Craig Calhoun, The Public Good as a Social and Cultural Project: Private Action and the Public Good, ed. Walter W. Powell and Elisabeth Stephanie Clemens (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998); Benjamin R. Barber, Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 133-134.
44. Knight Abowitz, Publics for Public Schools: Legitimacy, Democracy, and Leadership, 65.
45. Matthews, Reclaiming Public Education by Reclaiming our Democracy, ix.
46. Chris Higgins and Kathleen Knight Abowitz, “What Makes a Public School Public? A Framework for Evaluating the Civic Substance of Schooling,” Educational Theory 61, no. 4 (2011): 365-380.
47. As quoted in Knight Abowitz, Publics for Public Schools: Legitimacy, Democracy, and Leadership, 87.
48. Cass R. Sunstein, On Rumors: How Falsehoods Spread, Why We Believe Them, What Can Be Done (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009).
49. Elizabeth Kolbert, “The Things People Say,” The New Yorker, November 2, 2009.
50. Leonard J. Waks, “Dewey’s Theory of the Democratic Public and the Public Character of Charter Schools,” Educational Theory 60, no. 6 (2010): 665-681.
51. Matthews, Reclaiming Public Education by Reclaiming our Democracy, 46.
52. Knight Abowitz, Publics for Public Schools: Legitimacy, Democracy, and Leadership, 43.
53. Jane Manbridge, “On the Contested Nature of the Public Good,” in Private Action and the Public Good, eds. Walter W. Powell and Elisabeth S. Clemens (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998), 9.
54. Peter Scott, “Higher Education, the Public Good and the Public Interest,” in Higher Education as a Public Good, ed. Ourania Filippakou and Gareth Williams (New York: Peter Lang, 2015), 47.
55. Calhoun, “The Public Good as a Social and Cultural Project,” 23.
56. Ibid., 20.
57. Ibid., 20, 32.
58. Craig Calhoun, “Remaking America: Public Institutions and the Public Good,” Social Science Research Council (February2, 2009)http://publicsphere.ssrc.org/calhoun-remaking- america-public-institutions-and-the-public-good/
59. For more see Feinberg, “The Idea of a Public Education,” 11.
60. For more about the promises and drawbacks of constructing standards this way see Meira Levinson, “Democracy, Accountability, and Education,” Theory and Research in Education 9, no. 2 (2011): 125-144.
61. Manbridge, “On the Contested Nature of the Public Good,” 3.
62. Labaree, “Public Goods, Private Goods.”
63. Ibid., 4.
64. Mary Pattillo, “Everyday Politics of School Choice in the Black Community,” Du Bois Review, 12, no. 1 (2015): 41-71.
65. Wendy Brown, Edgework: Critical Essays on Knowledge and Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005).
66. Ibid., 43.
67. Knight Abowitz discusses these overlapping interests in Publics for Public Schools.
68. Gert Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand: Can the Democratic Potential of Accountability be Regained?” Educational Theory 54, no. 3 (2004): 233-250; Michael Gunzenhauser, The Active/Ethical Professional: A Framework for Responsible Educators (London: Continuum, 2012).
69. Gert Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand,” 250.
70. Chubb and Moe as described in Henig, Rethinking School Choice: Limits of the Market Metaphor (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994), 94.
71. Gert Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand,” 241.
72. Jennifer L. Hochschild and Nathan B. Scovronick. The American Dream and the Public Schools (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 17.
73. Feinberg, “The Idea of a Public Education,” 19.