1. Rebecca Rogers, An Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis in Education, 2nd ed. (Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 2011).
2. Obviously, US public schools are also concerned with the performance of individual students given the current emphasis on high-stakes testing. But those schools also consider larger aggregated data geared toward ensuring equality of opportunity.
3. Chris Whittle, Crash Course: Imagining a Better Future for Public Education (New York: Riverhead Books, 2005), 107.
4. K12 Inc., http://www.k12.com. January 5, 2016.
5. I grant here that many public schools are currently restrictive in the populations they serve due to racial resegregation, housing patterns, and other issues. I am focusing on the potential of these schools in terms of their design and intention. Robert Reich, “Common Schooling and Educational Choice,” in School Choice: Policies and Outcomes, ed. Chris Lubienski and Walter Feinberg (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008): 21-40.
6. Walter Feinberg, “The Idea of a Public Education,” Review of Research in Education 36 (2012): 20.
7. Christopher Lubienski and Sarah Theule Lubienski, The Public School Advantage: Why Public Schools Outperform Private Schools (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014), 143-144.
8. While I generally claim that public schools should be widely inclusive and need people from multiple backgrounds to engage in publicness and deliberation, I recognize that there may be rare times when it is worthwhile for single-culture schools or classes (or schools or classes based on some other element of identity) if that population is particularly vulnerable. For example, the public Harvey Milk School provides such a safe space for LGBTQ students, though it wisely does not limit its student body to only those students, but rather intentionally carves out a space to privilege and protect them when warranted.
9. Friedrich A. von Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, i960), 68.
10. Benjamin Barber, “Clansman, Consumers, and Citizens,” in Civil Society, Democracy, and Civic Renewal, ed. Robert K. Fullinwider (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 13.
11. Signal Tree Academy South charter school proposal, 6. See Molly Bloom, “Read White Hat’s Applications to Open New Ohio Charter Schools,” StateImpact, A reporting project of NPR member stations, January 18, 2012, http://stateimpact.npr.org/ohio/2012/ 01/18/read-white-hat%E2%8o%99s-applications-to-open-new-ohio-charter-schools/, accessed January 18, 2012.
12. John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe, and The Brookings Institution, Politics, Markets, and America’s Schools (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1990), 23.
13. Ibid., 218-219.
14. Note how “bureaucratic” operates as common sense within neoliberal ideology. Bureaucracies are seen as systems of people who serve to constrain and are themselves constrained by regulations. These are necessarily bad because they are believed to be inefficient and limiting on individuals or corporations.
15. Available online: National Heritage Academies, http://www.nhaschools.com/Pages/ default.aspx; Edison Learning, http://www.edisonlearning.com/ (accessed January 12, 2012).
16. www.k12.com/about-k12.html (accessed January 5, 2016).
17. White Hat Management, http://www.whitehatmgmt.com (accessed January 12, 2012).
18. For a discussion of Friedman’s views, see Jeffrey R. Henig, Rethinking School Choice: Limits of the Market Metaphor (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994), 60.
19. Wayne Au, “Chartering Charade in Washington State: The Anti-Democratic Politics of the Charter School Movement and the Removal of the Public from Public Education,” in The Charter School Solution, ed. Jamel K. Donner and Tara L. Affolter (New York: Routledge, 2016), 13.
20. PBS Frontline interview with David Brennan, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/ frontline/ shows/vouchers/interviews/brennan.html (accessed January 12, 2012).
22. Lubienski and Lubienski, The Public School Advantage, 37.
23. Michael Apple, drawing on Roger Dale, expertly explains how markets behave in this way. Michael W. Apple, “Can Critical Pedagogies Interrupt Rightist Policies?” Educational Theory 50, no. 2 (2000): 229; Wendy Brown further adds to this account in Edgework: Critical Essays on Knowledge and Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 41.
24. Catherine Candisky, Randy Ludlow, and Bill Bush, “Data-rigging for Ohio Charter- School Evaluations Involved Several Employees,” September 4, 2015, http://www.dispatch. com/content/stories/local/2015/09/03/ohio-department-education-records-release.html)
25. Wendy Brown, Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution (New York: Zone Books, 2015), 108
26. Ibid., 40.
27. Benjamin Barber, Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 297.
28. For more, see Henig, Rethinking School Choice, 10.
29. Barber, Strong Democracy, 296-297.
30. For more along these lines, see Kristin Davidson, “Democracy and Public School Choice,” American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC, 2016.
31. Brown, Undoing the Demos, 39.
32. As quoted in Jay P. Lefkowitz, “Teaching America: The Case for Civic Education,” in Teaching America: The Case for Civic Education, ed. David Feith (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011), 201.
33. Feinberg, “The Idea of a Public Education,” 19.
34. John E. Chubb, “The Private Can Be Public,” in Choice and Competition in American Education, ed. Paul E. Peterson (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006), 21.
35. Chubb and Moe, Politics, Markets, and America’s Schools, 13.
36. PBS Frontline interview with David Brennan.
38. Gary Miron and Christopher Nelson, What’s Public about Charter Schools?: Lessons Learned about Choice and Accountability (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2002), 183.
39. Ibid., 185.
40. This open, democratic process is certainly not universal across all public schools. Mayoral control in some areas and the presence of corporate interests on school boards in others has limited the influence of the general public on school practice and policy.
41. Ohio, for example, introduced such legislation as part of its proposed budget in May 2011.
42. Catherine Candisky, “Court Orders Charter-School Manager to Open Books,” The Columbus Dispatch, March 13, 2013, http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2013/ 03/13/court-orders-charter-school-manager-to-open-books.html
43. Richard D. Sorenson and Lloyd Milton Goldsmith, The Principal’s Guide to School Budgeting (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2013), 138.
44. Amy Stuart Wells and Janelle Scott, “Privatization and Charter School Reform: Economic, Political, and Social Dimensions,” in Privatizing Education: Can the Marketplace Deliver Choice, Efficiency, Equity, and Social Cohesion? ed. Henry M. Levin (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001), 253.
45. Signal Tree Academy South charter school proposal, http://stateimpact.npr.org/ ohio/ 2012/01/18/read-white-hat%E2%80%99s-applicationsto-open-new-ohio-charter-schools/, (accessed January 12, 2012).
46. See Valerie Strauss, “Bill Gates Expands Influence—and Money—into Higher Education,” Washington Post, July 15, 2013, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/ answer- sheet/wp/2013/07/15/bill-gates-expands-influence-and-money-into-higher- education/; Anya Kamenetz, “Anti-Test ‘Opt-Out’ Movement Makes a Wave in New York
State,” National Public Radio, April 20, 2015, http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2015/04/20/ 400396254/anti-test-opt-out-movement-makes-a-wave-in-new-york-state
47. Dale Russakoff and Ebooks Corporation, The Prize: Who’s in Charge of America’s Schools? (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2015), 64.
48. Ibid., 73.
49. See the FairTest website, which provides assistance to parents who would like to opt their children out of testing, as a “powerful way to resist No Child Left Behind and the way standardized testing distorts and corrupts K-12 classrooms.” http://www.fairtest.org/ get-involved/opting-out. January 12, 2012.
50. Admittedly, many public school board elections have recently experienced low turnouts, signaling that some citizens don’t sufficiently care about the school board enough to participate in selecting them.
51. Nelson Smith, Redefining the School District in America Washington DC. The Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2015), 18.
53. Smith, Redefining the School District in America, 14.
54. Meredith Simons, “The Student-Led Backlash Against New Orleans’s Charter Schools.” The Atlantic, February 5, 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/ 2014/02/the-student-led-backlash-against-new-orleanss-charter-schools/283597
57. Smith, Redefining the School District in America.
58. Ibid., 8.
59. Katrina E. Bulkley and Jeffrey R. Henig, “Local Politics and Portfolio Management Models: National Reform Ideas and Local Control,” Peabody Journal of Education 90 (2015): 56.
60. Jeffrey Henig, “The Politics of Localism in an Era of Centralization, Privatization, and Choice,” in The New Localism in American Education, The 108th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Volume 1, ed. R. L. Crowson and E. B. Goldring (Malden, MA: NSSE, 2009), 119.
61. William L. Bainbridge and Steven M. Sundre, “Factors That Parents Want in Their Children’s Schools,” Educational Research Service Spectrum (Spring 1991), http://school- match.com/articles/ERSSPRING91.htm.
62. Gert Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand: Can the Democratic Potential of Accountability be Regained?” Educational Theory 54 (2004): 239.
63. Cincinnati Public Schools News Release, January 15, 2016, www.cps-k12.org/news/ news-releases (accessed January 26, 2016).
64. http://www.cms.k12.nc.us/cmsdepartments/accountability/spr/pages/additional resources.aspx (accessed January 26, 2016).
65. Laura Devaney, “Should You Treat Your School Like a Business?” Eschool News, February 5, 2016, www.eschoolnews.com/2016/02/05/should-you-treat-your-school-like-a- business/ (accessed March 11, 2016).
66. David F. Labaree, “Public Goods, Private Goods: The American Struggle Over Educational Goals.” American Educational Research Journal 34 (1997): 39-81.
67. Peg Tyre, “Putting Parents in Charge,” New York Times, Septemebr 17, 2011.
68. Jason B. Cook, “The Effect of Charter Competition on Unionized District Revenues and Resource Allocation,” May 14, 2016, http://ncspe.tc.columbia.edu/working-papers/ OP229.pdf
69. Chester E. Finn Jr., “All Aboard the Charters?” National Review 58, no. 18 (2006): 54.
70. Alex Molnar, Giving Kids the Business: The Commercialization of America’s Schools (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996), 183.
71. Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand,” 238.
72. Amy Stewart Wells, Julie Slayton, and Janelle Scott, “Defining Democracy in the Neoliberal Age: Charter School Reform and Educational Consumption,” American Educational Research Journal 39, no. 2 (2002): 354.
73. I’m following Larry Cuban in this train of thought. Larry Cuban, The Blackboard and the Bottom Line: Why Schools Can’t Be Businesses (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004).
74. Michael W. Apple, Educating the “Right” Way: Markets, Standards, God, and Inequality (New York: Routledge, 2006), 15.
75. For more along these lines, see Biesta, “Education, Accountability, and the Ethical Demand,” 237-238.
76. Martin Carnoy, “School Choice? Or is it Privatization?” Educational Researcher 29, no. 7 (2000): 16.
77. Terry M. Moe, “Going Private,” in Charters, Vouchers, and Public Education, ed. Paul E. Peterson, David E. Campbell and The Brookings Institution (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2001), 109.
78. Wells and Scott, “Privatization and Charter School Reform,” 236.
79. David R. Garcia, Rebecca Barber, and Alex Molnar, “Profiting from Public Education: Education Management Organizations and Student Achievement,” Teachers College Record 111, no. 5 2009): 1352.
80. Mark Weber and Julia Sass Rubin, New Jersey Charter Schools: A Data-Driven View, Part I Enrollments and Student Demographics (Rutgers, NJ: Rutgers University, 2014).
81. Chubb, Moe, and The Brookings Institution, Politics, Markets, and America’s Schools, 221-222.
82. Signal Tree Academy Northeast charter school proposal (2011), 10, http://stateim- pact.npr.org/ohio/2012/01/18/read-white-hat%E2%80%99sapplications-to-open-new- ohio-charter-schools (accessed January 12, 2012).
83. Chubb, Moe, and The Brookings Institution, Politics, Markets, and America’s Schools, 65.
84. Natalie Lacireno-Paquet, Thomas T. Holyoke, Michele Moser, and Jeffrey R. Henig, “Creaming Versus Cropping: Charter School Enrollment Practices in Response to Market Incentives,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 24, no. 2 (2002): 145.
85. Ibid., 155.
86. Kate Taylor, “At a Success Academy Charter School, Singling Out Pupils Who Have ‘Got to Go,” New York Times, October 29, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/ 30/nyregion/at-a-success-academy-charter-school-singling-out-pupils-who-have-got-to- go.html?emc=eta1&_r=4
87. For more along these lines, see Wells, Slayton, and Scott, “Defining Democracy in the Neoliberal Age.”
88. Ruth Jonathan, “Liberalism and Education,” Journal of Philosophy of Education 31, no. 1 (1997): 198.
89. Bronwyn Davies and Peter Bansel, “Neoliberalism and Education,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 20, no. 3 (2007): 249.
90. Sir Isaiah Berlin, “Two Concepts of Liberty,” in Four Essays on Liberty, ed. Sir Isaiah Berlin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969).
91. Brown, Undoing the Demos, 41.
92. Pattillo, “Everyday Politics of School Choice in the Black Community.”
93. Meira Levinson, “The Civic Achievement Gap,” CIRCLE Working Paper 51, CIRCLE: The Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning & Engagement (January 2007); Mark Hugo Lopez and Emily Hoban Kirby, “U.S. Civics Instruction: Content and Teaching Strategies,” CIRCLE: The Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning & Engagement (August 2007).
94. Lubienski and Lubienski, The Public School Advantage, 122.
95. Ibid., 127.
96. Signal Tree Academy South charter school proposal, 360, http://stateimpact.npr.org/ ohio/2012/01/18/read-white-hat%E2%80%99s-applications-to-open-new-ohio-charter- schools (accessed January 12, 2012). See also Garcia, Barber, and Molnar, “Profiting from Public Education.”
97. Kenneth J. Saltman, The Edison Schools: Corporate Schooling and the Assault on Public Education (New York: Routledge, 2005).