Coordination of Promotion-mix Elements
Clearly, each promotion-mix element plays a different role in the process of informing and influencing consumers at different purchase decisionmaking stages.
Advertising is a major mass communication tool creating awareness of products and brands and informing consumers that the product is out there and available in the market. However, advertising is the least effective element in promotion, stimulating consumers to buy the product immediately and thus less effective at the purchase stage. Yet, it could be effective as advertising continues to inform consumers about how to use, or alternative uses of the product, and/or the availability of post-purchase services (such as product guarantees) as indicated by the blue line in Fig. 6.13. Similarly, personal selling’s importance is high as it focuses on convincing the buyer (especially in industrial markets) to buy the product. As personal selling success predominantly depends on building a long- lasting relationship with the buyer, the importance of the technique remains high. Sales promotion can create awareness and can attract consumers to products. Importance can reach high levels as it can create a strong stimulus with various selling techniques at the point of purchase. The importance of sales promotion reduces after purchase as all the effort was focused on immediate sales generation. Finally, public relations can be used to develop positive attitudes about products in the pre-purchase stages. Although it is less influential at the purchase stage than many other promotion-mix elements, it can enhance consumer satisfaction if
Fig. 6.13 Promotion-mix elements’ effectiveness Source: Roger et al. (2009)
the influential positive image of the pre-purchase can be affirmed at the post-purchase stages (see the purple downward-sloping line in Fig. 6.13).
Another comparative approach to understanding the effectiveness of promotion-mix elements would be to look at them from the perspective of “push and pull” strategies.