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Steel Reinforcing Mesh

Figure 6.2, taken from Australian Building Products LCI (BPIC 2010), shows the production process of SRM and its system boundary. According to Strezov and Herbertson (2006), around 93% of SRM is produced by electric arc furnaces (EAF) and the remaining is produced by basic oxygen furnaces (BOF). The EAF process produces 9% of slag and the BOF process produces 8% of slag, according to Australian building products LCI (BPIC 2010). The iron obtained from EAF and

Flow sheet of the production of SRM in traditional methods and the system boundary (BPIC 2010)

Fig. 6.2 Flow sheet of the production of SRM in traditional methods and the system boundary (BPIC 2010)

BOF is continuously casted, milled and cold rolled into steel bars. At this stage 20% of steel scrap is reused in the BOF or EAF processes. The milled steel bars are then cut, bent and resistance welded into SRM (ZCBL 2013). The cutting, bending and welding processes are mainly carried out by manual labour, and the electricity used in these processes is negligible compared to the BOF, EAF and casting processes.

Hence the environmental impacts of these processes are not considered. GHG (such as CO2), emissions causing eutrophication (such as NOx), toxic gases (such as SO2), particulate matter with 10 micrometers or less in diameter (PM10), and solid and liquid wastes are generated. The environmental impacts of BOF, EAF, casting and milling steel, and transportation are calculated using the SimaPro 8.0 databases (Associates and Sylvatica 2004a, b; Grant and Grant 2011a; Spielmann 2012; Steiner 2008).

 
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