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Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism: Philosophy and Practice

Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism: Setting the StageIntroductionDefinitions and TerminologiesDefinition of Tourism Social EntrepreneurshipTourism Context and ScopeTourism Social Entrepreneurship: The Need and the OpportunityThe Current State of Tourism Social EntrepreneurshipIn IndustryIn AcademiaIn EducationBook ContentsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesI Understanding Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism Theorizing Social Entrepreneurship Within Tourism StudiesThe Concept of Social EntrepreneurshipIs the Concept of Social Entrepreneurship Applicable to Tourism Studies?Applying the Concept of Social Entrepreneurship to Tourism StudiesAn Example of Social Entrepreneurship in Action: The Case of Dine'HozhoConclusionQuestions for DiscussionReferencesInstitutional and Policy Support for Tourism Social EntrepreneurshipIntroductionSocial Entrepreneurship: A Policymaker’s PerspectiveIf It’s Not Broken, Why Change Things?Positioning Social Entrepreneurship as a Policy IssueSocial Entrepreneurship Policy ComplementaritiesInstitutional Context and Policy DirectionsCreating an Enabling Institutional ContextPolicy Directions and InitiativesConclusionsDiscussion QuestionsReferencesSocial Entrepreneurship Typologies and Tourism: Conceptual FrameworksIntroductionSocial + EntrepreneursTypologies of EntrepreneursOrganizations in the Social SectorSocial EntrepreneursCharacteristics of Social EntrepreneursSocial Entrepreneurs, Social Intrepreneurs, and Socially Responsible EntrepreneursAre Social Entrepreneurs Solitary Actors or Team Players?Social Bricoleurs, Social Constructionists and Social EngineersOrganizations That Social Entrepreneurs CreateBalancing Social Mission with the Profit ImperativeTypologies of Funding for Social EntrepreneurshipSocial Entrepreneurs’ Use of Capitals- Political, Human, Economic and SocialDegrees of Social EntrepreneurshipSocial Entrepreneurship and TourismNew Ways of Categorizing Social Entrepreneurship in TourismTourism Value Chain and Tourism Supply Chain TypologiesSource of Social BenefitSocio-Economic ContextConclusionDiscussion QuestionsReferencesBusiness Models for Social Entrepreneurship in lourismIntroductionBusiness Models Definitions and DimensionsBusiness Models and Tourism Social EntrepreneurshipValue PropositionKey ActivitiesProcurement of SuppliesEmployment of Disadvantaged GroupsDesigning the Product ServiceMarketing and DistributionKey Partners (Value Networks)Key Resources (Resource Strategy)Economic CapitalHuman CapitalSocial CapitalCustomer Segments (Market Definition)Customer RelationshipsDistribution ChannelsCost StructureRevenue Streams, Revenue ModelLegal StructureGrowthConclusionQuestionsReferencesSocial Innovations in Tourism: Social Practices Contributing to Social DevelopmentIntroductionTechnology and Changing Social PracticesSocial Innovations for Community DevelopmentSocial Innovation as GovernanceSocial EntrepreneurshipSocial Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship as Bottom-Up and CollaborativeConclusion: The Paradox of Social InnovationQuestions for DiscussionReferencesUnderstanding How Social Entrepreneurs Fit into the Tourism DiscourseIntroductionThe Tourism DiscourseUnderstanding Tourism EntrepreneursSustainabilitySocial INTRApreneurshipDestination DevelopmentConcluding RemarksDiscussion QuestionsReferencesII Communities of Practice Exploring Social Entrepreneurship in Food TourismIntroductionSocial Entrepreneurship, Food Systems and TourismRural Tourism, Farm Tourism and Farmers’ MarketsTheoretical FrameworksEcological Systems TheoryPositive Theory of Social EntrepreneurshipMethodsFindingsProduction and Harvest Stage: Plum Granny FarmProcessing Stage: Fullsteam BreweryDistribution Stage: Eastern Carolina OrganicsRetail: Triangle Raw FoodsResearch QuestionsDiscussionQuestions for DiscussionReferencesKnowledge Dynamics in the Tourism-Social Entrepreneurship NexusIntroductionKnowledge Dynamics and InnovationKnowledge Dynamics in Tourism and Social EntrepreneurshipResearch ApproachKnowledge PhasesActors and Their ContextsKnowledge InteractionsData CollectionMai Hich Community-Based Tourism Knowledge BiographyContextual SettingThe Innovation ProcessPhase 1: Questioning and Criticizing Current InterventionPhase 2: Developing New InterventionsPhase 3: Implementing InterventionsPhase 4: Evaluating InterventionPhase 5: Consolidating InterventionDiscussionMulti-sectoral Actors and Multi-scalar Reach of Innovation ProcessThe Targeted Population for Social ChangeLocal NGO as the ‘Gatekeeper ’Tourism Social Entrepreneur as a ‘Boundary Spanner ’The Emerging of a Social Entrepreneurship NetworkConclusionQuestions for DiscussionReferencesSocial Enterprise Evaluation: Implications for Tourism DevelopmentIntroductionPerformance Management for Social EnterpriseThe Gold Standard of Evaluation: Random Controlled TrialsThe Role of Financial and Accounting ReportingSocial Impact Accounting: SORIThe Role of Programmatic EvaluationFourth Generation Evaluation MethodsParticipatory Evaluation and Empowerment EvaluationSocial Enterprise Evaluation in the Tourism SectorExploring the Gender DimensionConclusionDiscussion QuestionsReferencesIII CasesSocial Entrepreneurship and Tourism Development in Mexico: A Case Study of North American Social Entrepreneurs in a Mexican TownIntroductionTransnational Social EntrepreneurshipMethodological StepsTourism Development in AlamosThe Ethnographic Setting: Social Non-profit Organizations in AlamosAnalysis: Transnational Social Entrepreneurs and Their Personalized TiesSocial Transformation in /AlamosFinal ReflectionsQuestionsReferencesHeroic Messiahs or Everyday Businessmen? The Rhetoric and the Reality of Social Entrepreneurship in IndiaIntroductionMotivations of Social EntrepreneursCase Description and Methods of StudyTwo Types of Motivations: Value-Oriented and Traditional EntrepreneurialValue-Oriented MotivationsTraditional Entrepreneurial MotivationsMotivations for Social Entrepreneurship and Identity CreationSocial Discourse of Social EntrepreneurshipLittle Narratives of Social EntrepreneurshipCounter Narratives of Social EntrepreneurshipSocial Entrepreneurship BricolageConclusionUseful WebsitesDiscussion QuestionsReferencesGuludo Beach Lodge and the Nema Foundation, MozambiqueIntroductionCommunity-Based TourismGuludo Beach LodgeEmpowerment FrameworkEconomic EmpowermentPsychological EmpowermentSocial EmpowermentPolitical EmpowermentThe Role of the Social EntrepreneurChallengesConclusionQuestionsReferencesThe BEST Society: From Charity to Social EntrepreneurshipIntroductionThe Borneo Ecotourism Solutions and Technologies SocietyBEST’s Sustainable Development ModelLiterature ReviewDiffusion of InnovationsToxic CharitySummaryMethodologyProposed ModelCommunity ConsensusInterrupting DependencyBuilding CapacityDeveloping Social EntrepreneurshipConclusionLimitations and Future ResearchApplication of ResultsQuestionsReferencesSocial Enterprise Ecosystems: A Case Study of the Danube Delta Region of RomaniaSocial Entrepreneurship in an Eastern European LandscapeThe Tourism Context in the Danube Delta Region of Romania‘Rowmania’ Case Study: Starting a Social Enterprise in the Danube Delta RegionTransferability of Best Practice: What Does the ‘Big Tree’ Look Like?ConclusionsQuestionsReferencesAdventure Alternative and Moving Mountains Trust: A Hybrid Business Model for Social Entrepreneurship in TourismIntroductionCompany OverviewThe Business ModelValue PropositionCustomersCustomer RelationshipsDistribution ChannelsKey ActivitiesResourcesEconomic CapitalHuman ResourcesSocial CapitalPartnerships with CommunitiesRevenue StreamsConclusionQuestionsReferencesThe Influence of Social Entrepreneurship in Tourism on an Arab Village in IsraelIntroductionTourism as a Resource for Peace-BuildingSocial Entrepreneurship in TourismArab Communities in IsraelMethodsJuha’s Guesthouse in the Village of Jisr az-ZarqaFindings: Observations About Social Entrepreneurship in Tourism as a Development Strategy for Israel’s Underserved Arab CommunitiesBarriers to Tourism Development in Jisr az-ZarqaSocial Tourism Entrepreneurship and an Arab-Jewish Business PartnershipImpacts Associated with Jisr az-Zarq’s First Commercial HostelConclusionsQuestionsReferencesWalking on Country with Bana Yarralji Bubu: A Model for Aboriginal Social Enterprise TourismIntroductionSocial Enterprise and Entrepreneurship ModelsResearch Approach: Qualitative Collaborative InquiryCase Study Results: Bana Yarralji Bubu Social EnterpriseLocation and Background of ResearchBana Yarralji’s Business ModelBana Yarralji Bubu Tourism OperationNature Goal: To Protect and Manage Land and Sea CountryWellbeing Goal: Healing Through Cultural AwarenessSociety/Cultural Goal: Protecting Cultural Identity, Rediscovering Lore and CustomsEconomic Goal: Creating Culturally Appropriate Job OpportunitiesDiscussionA New Model of Aboriginal Social EnterpriseConclusionReferencesMoving Tourism Social Entrepreneurship Forward: Agendas for Research and EducationIntroductionA Research Agenda for TSEConceptual and Theoretical Research OpportunitiesOperational Aspects of TSERelational CharacteristicsCharacteristics of Tourism Social EntrepreneursTSE and Its ContextTracking the Performance of TSEAn Education Agenda for TSEConclusionQuestionsReferences

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