Desktop version

Home arrow Travel arrow Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism: Philosophy and Practice

Questions for Discussion

  • 1. What ethical issues should social entrepreneurs consider as they contemplate working with communities, particularly marginalized communities? Similarly, what ethical issues should be considered by communities approached by social entrepreneurs?
  • 2. In what ways is social entrepreneurship a more sustainable approach for community well-being when compared to traditional business models like corporate social responsibility?
  • 3. Collectivist societies are more likely to have a prevalence of social entrepreneurs than individualist societies. Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.


Alter, S. K. (2006). Social enterprise models and their mission and money relationships. In A. Nicholls (Ed.), Social entrepreneurship: New models of sustainable change (pp. 205-232). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bellone, C. J., & Goerl, G. F. (2002). Reconciling public entrepreneurship and democracy. In P. Kobrak (Ed.), The political environment of public management (pp. 384-392). New York: Longman.

Bianchi, R. (2009). The critical turn in tourism studies: A radical critique. Tourism Geographies, 11(4), 484-504.

Bielefeld, W. (2008). Social entrepreneurship and social enterprise. In C. Wankel (Ed.), 21st century management: A reference handbook (pp. 22-31). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Boluk, K. (2011). Revealing the discourses: White entrepreneurial motivation in Black South Africa.

Tourism Planning and Development, 8(2), 199-213.

Bornstein, D. (2007). How to change the world: Social entrepreneurs and the power of new ideas. New York: Oxford University Press.

Buzinde, C. N., Xue, L., & Yarmenko, S. (2013). Corporate social responsibility and the millennium development goals: The case of Xel-Ha, Mexico. In K. Bricker, R. Black, & S. Cottrell (Eds.), Sustainable tourism & the millennium development goals: Effecting positive change (pp. 7-22). Burlington, NC: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Chambers, D., & Buzinde, C. (2015). Tourism and decolonisation: Locating research and self. Annals of Tourism Research, 51, 1-16.

Cho, A. H. (2006). Politics, values and social entrepreneurship: A critical appraisal. In J. Mair, J. Robninson, & K. Hockerts (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship (pp. 34-44). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Dees, J. G. (2001). The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Center for the advancement of social entrepreneurship. Durham, NC: Fuqua School of Business, Duke University. Retrieved June 20 2014, from

Dees, J. G. (2008). Philanthropy and enterprise: Harnessing the power of business and social enterprenuership for development. In D. Chollet & L. Brainard (Eds.), Global development 2.0: Can philanthropy, the public and the poor make poverty history? (pp. 120-134). Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.

Dees, G., & Anderson, B. B. (2003). For-profit social ventures. In M. Kourilsky & W. Walstad (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship (pp. 1-26). Dublin: Senate Hall Academic Publishing.

Frank, P. F., Shockley, G. E., & Stough, R. R. (2004). An institutional typology of entrepreneurship: Nonprofit, for-profit, and public sector entrepreneurial discovery. Paper presented at the Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research (Babson-Kaufmann Entrepreneurship Research Conference), Glasgow, Scotland.

Hall, J. K., Daneke, G. A., & Lenox, M. J. (2010). Sustainable development and entreprenuership: Past contributions and future directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 25, 439-448.

Hall, J., Matos, S., Sheehan, L., & Silvestre, B. (2012). Entreprenuership and innovation at the base of the pyramid: A recipe for inclusive growth or social exclusion? Journal of Management Studies, 49(28), 785-812.

Kirzner, I. M. (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Kline, C., Shah, N., & Rubright, H. (2014). Applying the positive theory of social entrepreneurship to understand food entrepreneurs and their operations. Tourism Planning and Development, 11(3), 330-342.

Kokkranikal, J., & Morrison, A. (2011). Community networks and sustainable livelihoods in tourism: The role of entrepreneurial innovation. Tourism Planning and Development, 8(2), 137-156.

Lamari, M., & Menard, C. (2012). Democratizing leisure and facilitate access to sports activities: Evaluation of a social economy for disabled or disadvantaged people in Quebec, Canada. Leisure/Loisir, 36(1), 37-52.

Light, P. (2006). Searching for social entrepreneurs: Who they might be, where they might be found, what they do. In R. Mosher-Williams (Ed.), Research on social entrepreneurship: Understanding and contributing to an emerging field (ARNOVA Occasional Paper Series, Volume 1, Number 3) (pp. 13-38). Indianapolis, IN: Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action.

Maarten, H., Nilsson, M., Raworth, K., Bakker, P., Berkhout, F., Boer, Y., et al. (2015). Beyond cockpit-ism: Four insights to enhance the transformative potential of the sustainable development goals. Sustainability, 7(2), 1651-1660.

March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (1984). The new institutionalism: Organizational factors in political life. The American Political Science Review, 3(78), 734-749.

March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (1996). Institutional perspectives on political institutions. Governance: An International Journal of Policy and Administration, 9(3), 247-264.

Mises, L. (1949/1996). Human action: A treatise on economics (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Fox & Wilkes.

Mody, M., & Day, J. (2014). Rationality of social entrepreneurs in tourism: Max Weber and the sociology of tourism development. International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 3(3), 227-244.

Nicholls, A. (2006). Introduction. In A. Nicholls (Ed.), Social entrepreneurship: New models of sustainable social change (pp. 1-35). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Roberts, A. J., Begay, R., Kelley, K. B., Yazzie, A. W., Thomas, J. R., Piper, J., etal. (1995). Navajo Nation cultural resource management program: Navajo history and cultural resources of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River. Window Rock, AZ: Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1934/2002). The theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1950). Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. New York: Harper & Row.

Shleifer, A. (1998). State versus private ownership. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(4), 133-150.

Shockley, G. E., Frank, P. F., & Stough, R. R. (2008). Introduction: The emerging field of non-market entrepreneurship. In Non-market entrepreneurship: Interdisciplinary approaches (pp. 3-9). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Shockley, G. E., & Frank, P. F. (2011). Schumpeter, Kirzner, and the field of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 6-26.

Swedberg, R. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: The view of the young Schumpeter. In D. Hjorth & C. Steyaert (Eds.), Entrepreneurship and social change (pp. 21-34). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Swedberg, R. (2009). Schumpeter’s full model of entrepreneurship: Economic, non-economic and social entrepreneurship, Chap. 6. In R. Ziegler (Ed.), An introduction to social entrepreneurship: Voices, preconditions, contexts (pp. 155-175). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Urbano, D., Toledano, N., & Soriano, D. R. (2010). Analyzing social entrepreneurship from and institutional perspective: Evidence from Spain. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 1, 54-69.

von der Weppen, J., & Cochrane, J. (2012). Social enterprises in tourism: An exploratory study of operational models and success factors. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20, 497-511.

Witherspoon, G. (1975). Navajo kinship and marriage. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Christine Buzinde is an associate professor in the School of Community Resources and Development at Arizona State University. Her research centers on the use of tourism as a tool for empowerment and well-being, particularly within marginalized communities. She focuses on evaluations of parameters indicative of advancements (or lack thereof) related to community well-being. Christine has conducted research within communities in Tanzania, Mexico, India, and the United States. Christine has published numerous articles in tourism studies, geographical, and cultural studies journals and she teaches graduate classes on advanced tourism theories and critical approaches to tourism policy and planning.

Gordon Shockley is an Associate Professor of Social Entrepreneurship in the School of Community Resources and Development at Arizona State University. He earned his doctorate in Public Policy at George Mason University’s School of Public Policy. His teaching and research interests concentrate on building the field of non-market entrepreneurship as well as contributing to the fields of public policy modeling. Before returning to academia, he worked for various levels of American government, including the finance division of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the budget offices of Milwaukee County, Kentucky, and Missouri.

Kathleen Andereck is a Professor and director of the School of Community Resources and Development at Arizona State University. Her research focuses on the tourism experience from the perspective of both visitors and residents particularly as it applies to sustainable tourism. Dr. Andereck has done research work with a diversity of agencies at the federal and state level including the Bureau of Land Management, the USDA Forest Service, the Arizona Office of Tourism and the Arizona Department of Transportation. Her work appears in numerous top-tier tourism journals and it has been presented at many national and international tourism conferences.

Edward Dee is a Ph.D. Student in the School of Sustainability at Arizona State University. He has a Master’s degree in Public Administration and Master of Business Administration degree and a Bachelor’s degree in Political Science. Mr. Dee’s research interests include Energy and Material Use, Policy and Governance, Innovative Community and Social Sustainable Enterprises, and Human-Environment interaction in Sustainable Tourism. His current research devises a framework that incorporates Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) or Dine Fundamental Law in sustainability science; and analysis of sustainable livelihood capabilities and assets that offers community-based Eco-tourism as possible solution option for Western Navajo chapters.

Peter Frank is an associate professor of economics and dean of Wingate University’s Porter B. Byrum School of Business. In 2012, Frank was a Fulbright scholar, teaching economics at a university in the former Soviet republic of Moldova. His focus was the economic and political systems of Eastern Europe. He has published research on topics such as business incubation in the Charlotte region, the institutionalization of venture capital, and functions of government in social entrepreneurship. He teaches courses at Wingate University in microeconomics, macroeconomics, business statistics, capitalism in U.S. economic history, and managerial economics.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >

Related topics