Source of Social Benefit
As noted earlier, the challenge of balancing mission with the needs for profit is an ongoing theme in research on the SEO. However, at least in tourism-related SEOs, this issue has additional dimensions. Social value can be created in both the production of the tourism experience and the use of earnings created by the sale of the tourism experience. In some cases, the tourism organizations achieve their mission through the direct activities of providing the tourism experience. Through
Fig. 6 Sources of social benefit
careful use of a variety of techniques, including supply chain management (sourcing local and authentic products), human resource management (hiring and training local people), and environmental performance management, they create sustainable tourism businesses that generate social benefits. Other social organizations focus less on the benefit generated as a result of operation and more on the financial benefits that are used for other social benefits. The proposed typology applies the value creation/value capture (Santos, 2012) model to the tourism and allows researchers to examine tourism SEOs in terms of the social benefits generated by the operation itself and those that are generated by outputs of the operation. See
Examination of social entrepreneurial activity in tourism reveals that categorizing social entrepreneurial activity based on network size may be useful. Current typologies identified so far in this chapter tend to focus on individual organizations; however, social entrepreneurship also can be considered in terms of tourism systems and networks. Community based tourism, such as the Bana Yarralji Bubu in chapter “Walking on Country with Bana Yarralji Bubu: A Model for Aboriginal Social Enterprise Tourism”, clearly apply “socially-entrepreneurial mindsets” beyond a single organization.
Finally, one suggested way of categorizing social enterprises in tourism is through the social/economic context in which the organization operates. Dimensions of such a categorization may include urban or rural context, as well as developed or developing economies. See Fig. 7. While all SEOs share common attributes, exploring differences created by social context would provide useful insight. Using this typology, organic cooperative farms supplying London hotels (devel- oped/urban) and handicraft souvenir suppliers to remote eco-lodges of Indonesia could be directly compared.
Fig. 7 Socio/economic context of SEO