Desktop version

Home arrow Travel arrow Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism: Philosophy and Practice


Questions for Discussion

  • 1. Why is an understanding of knowledge dynamic important for social entrepreneurs to be successful?
  • 2. Think of some social entrepreneurs that you know in the tourism or hospitality industry. Give examples of ‘boundary spanners’ and ‘gate keepers’.
  • 3. What are some examples of ‘tacit’ and ‘explicit’ knowledge in the tourism context that social entrepreneurs might use?

Acknowledgement Our sincere thanks to Dr. Rob Hales from Griffith University, Australia for

valuable comments on the initial development of this chapter.


Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and mind in the knowledge age. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bloom, P. N., & Dees, G. (2008). Cultivate your ecosystem. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 6 (1), 47-53.

Burns, P. (2004). Tourism planning: A third way? Annals of Tourism Research, 31(1), 24-43.

Butzin, A., & Widmaier, B. (2010). Knowledge biographies: A new approach to study time-space dynamics of knowledge. EURODITE research.

Carlson, S. A. (2003). Knowledge management and knowledge management systems in interorganizational networks. Knowledge and Process Management, 10(3), 194-206.

COHED. (2013). Community-based tourism development. Retrieved July 15, 2015, from http://

Cooper, C. (2014). Managing tourism knowledge: Concept and approaches. In M. McLeod & R. Vaughan (Eds.), Knowledge networks and tourism (pp. 62-79). Abingdon: Routledge.

Dredge, D. (2014). Tourism-planning network knowledge dynamics. In M. McLeod & R. Vaughan (Eds.), Knowledge networks and tourism (pp. 9-27). Abingdon: Routledge.

Duong, B. (2015). Internal document: CBT travel and consulting profile. Vietnam: CBT Travel and Consulting.

Duong Minh Binh. (2015). Community-based tourism ‘CBT Travel’ (English subtitle) [Video]. Retrieved July 10, 2015, from

Dzisi, S., & Otsyina, F. A. (2014). Exploring social entrepreneurship in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 3(6), 233-241.

Easterby-Smith, M., & Lyles, M. (2003). Re-reading “organizational learning”: Selective memory, forgetting, and adaptation. The Academy of Management Executive, 17(2), 51-55.

Engestrom, Y. (1999). Perspectives on activity theory. In Y. Engestrom, R. Miettinen, & R.-L. Punamaki (Eds.), Activity theory and individual and social transformation (pp. 19-38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Garud, R., Hardy, C., & Maguire, S. (2007). Institutional entrepreneurship as embedded agency: An introduction to the special issue. Organization Studies-Berlin-European Group for Organizational Studies, 28(7), 957.

Gilbert, N., Ahrweiler, P., & Pyka, A. (Eds.). (2014). Simulating knowledge dynamics in innovation networks. Heidelberg: Springer.

Halkier, H., Dahlstrom, M., James, L., Manniche, J., & Olsen, L. S. (2010). Knowledge dynamics, regional development and public policy. Aalborg: Institute for History, Aalborg University.

Heyniger, C., & Lamoureaux, K. (2007, June 21-24). Rural adventure tourism and social entrepreneurship: Practices and trends. Paper presented at the BEST Educational Network Think Tank VII: Innovations for Sustainable Tourism, The Northern Arizona University.

Hjalager, A.-M. (2002). Repairing innovation defectiveness in tourism. Tourism Management, 23 (5), 465-474.

Jokela, H., Niinikoski, E. R., & Muhos, M. (2015). Knowledge dynamics and innovation: Case studies in a sparsely populated area. International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 17(2), 234-253.

Lee, S.-H. (2014). A social exchange theory of non-governmental organizations as social entrepreneurs in rural entrepreneurship. In P. Phan, J. Kickul, S. Bacq, & M. Nordqvist (Eds.), Theory and empirical research in social entrepreneurship. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36-44.

McLeod, M., & Vaughan, R. (2014). Knowledge networks and tourism. Abingdon: Routledge.

MISEREOR. (2015). MISEREOR—About us.

Montgomery, A. W., Dacin, P. A., & Dacin, M. T. (2012). Collective social entrepreneurship: Collaboratively shaping social good. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 375-388.

Mulgan, G., Ali, R., Halkett, R., & Sanders, B. (2007). In and out of sync: The challenge of growing social innovations. London: NESTA.

Nguyen, N. (2013). Mai Chau home-stay proves a hit. VietnamNews. Retrieved July 15, 2015, from

Nguyen, C., Luu, D., Pham, O., & Tran, G. (2012). Social enterprise in Vietnam: Concept, context and policies. Hanoi: Central Institute of Economic Management.

Nguyen, D., Luu, D., & Mac, V. (2014). Food security of poor households in Mai Chau District, Hoa Binh Province: Situations and solutions. Journal of Science and Development, 12(6), 821-828.

Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Olson, P. (1985). Entrepreneurship: Process and abilities. American Journal of Small Business, 10 (1), 25-31.

Paavola, S., Lipponen, L., & Hakkarainen, K. (2004). Models of innovative knowledge communities and three metaphors of learning. Review of Educational Research, 74(4), 557-576.

Phills, J., Deiglmeier, K., & Miller, D. (2008). Rediscovering social innovation. Stanford University. Retrieved July 5, 2015, from social_innovation/

Polak, P. (2009). Out of poverty: What works when traditional approaches fail. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Popoviciu, I., & Popoviciu, S. (2011). Social entrepreneurship, social enterprise and the principles of a community of practice. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala, 33, 44-55.

Shaw, E., & de Bruin, A. (2013). Reconsidering capitalism: The promise of social innovation and social entrepreneurship? International Small Business Journal, 31(7), 737-746. doi:10.1177/ 0266242613497494.

Shockley, G. E., & Frank, P. M. (2011). The functions of government in social entrepreneurship: Theory and preliminary evidence. Regional Science Policy and Practice, 3(3), 181-198.

Steinberg, A. (2005). Emergent knowledge dynamics in innovation: Exploring e-business entrepreneurship after the dotcom crash. PhD Thesis. University of London, Institute of Social Psychology.

Svensson, B., Nordin, S., & Flagestad, A. (2005). A governance perspective on destination development-exploring partnerships, clusters and innovation systems. Tourism Review, 60 (2), 32-37.

Tanimoto, K. (2008). Conceptual framework of social entrepreneurship and social innovation cluster: A preliminary study. Hitotsubashi Journal of Commerce and Management, 42, 1-16.

Tanimoto, K. (2012). The emergent process of social innovation: Multi-stakeholders perspective. International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, 4(3-4), 267-280.

United Nations. (2015). Green growth. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from https://

VTV2 (Creator). (2013). Community-based tourism in Mai Hich Viet Nam (English subtitle) [Video]. Retrieved July, 10, 2015, from

Wang, C. L., & Chugh, H. (2014). Entrepreneurial learning: Past research and future challenges. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16(1), 24-61.

Weidenfeld, A., Williams, A. M., & Butler, R. W. (2010). Knowledge transfer and innovation among attractions. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 604-626.

Westley, F., Zimmerman, B., & Patton, M. (2009). Getting to maybe: How the world is changed. Toronto: Vintage Canada.

Wood, M. (2002). Mind the gap? A Processual reconsideration of organizational knowledge. Organization, 9(1), 151-171.

Yin, R. (2003). Case study research (3rd ed.). London: Sage.

Yunus, M. (2005). Eliminating poverty through market-based social entrepreneurship. Global Urban Development Magazine. cle.htm

Zebrowski, R. L. (2009). Social entrepreneurship as a new paradigm: Rethinking development intervention ideologies. University of Oregon.

Giang Thi Phi is a third-year Ph.D. candidate at the Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University. Her Ph.D. research critically examines the links between microfinance tourism and poverty alleviation. Giang’s broader research interests include the planning, management and evaluation of complex event and tourism projects, social entrepreneurship and the development of tourism approaches for positive social change.

Michelle Whitford is a Senior Lecturer and Program Director of the Bachelor of International Tourism and Hotel Management in the Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University. Her research expertise is in the field of event policy and planning and Indigenous tourism and events. Dr. Whitford’s research work includes co-coordinating projects in the area of Indigenous tourism and events with a focus on supply and demand, capacity development, entrepreneurship, authenticity and commodification and management.

Dianne Dredge is Professor in the Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. She is Chair of the Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI), a network of over 500 tourism educators and practitioners. This network believes in the powerful transformative effects of education and the co-creation of knowledge in building sustainable and just forms of tourism for the future. Originally trained as an environmental planner, Dianne has 20 years of practical experience working with communities, governments, tourism operators and NGOs. Her research interests include social entrepreneurship, collaborative governance, tourism policy, knowledge dynamics and tourism education.

Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >

Related topics