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Questions

  • 1. Using examples, discuss the key difference between the Best Sustainable Development Model and other NGOs such as the Rotary Club and the Lion’s Club to help the poor.
  • 2. Identify and discuss factors that can either improve or impede sustainable development initiatives.
  • 3. Why, or why not, is social entrepreneurship the only answer to solve poverty?
  • 4. Using examples, discuss the challenges faced by social entrepreneurs such as Best to get Government’s support.
  • 5. What do you think will happen to communities in poor developing countries who traditionally depend on politicians and NGOs for handouts once they become self-reliant through social entrepreneurship programs? Why or why not will such communities make the incumbent politicians insecure and will such communities vote for the opposition party?

References

Bielefeld, W. (2009). Issues in social enterprise and social entrepreneurship. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 15(1), 69-86.

Borzaga, C., & Galera, G. (2014). New trends in the nonprofit sector in Europe: The emergence of social enterprises. Accountability and social accounting for social and non-profit organizations. Advances in Public Interest Accounting, 17, 89-110.

Choi, N., & Majumdar, S. (2015). Social innovation: Towards a conceptualisation, Ch 2. In S. Majumdar, S. Guha, & N. Marakkath (Eds.), Technology and innovation for social change (pp. 7-34). New Delhi: Springer.

Dees, J. G. (1998). The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Kansas City, MO: Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership.

Dees, J. G., & Anderson, B. B. (2006). Framing a theory of social entrepreneurship: Building on two schools of practice and thought. In R. Mosher-Williams (Ed.), Research on social entrepreneurship: Understanding and contributing to an emerging field (Vol. 1, pp. 39-66). Indianapolis, IN: Association for Nonprofit and Voluntary Associations.

Frances, N., & Cuskelly, M. (2008). The end of charity: Time for social enterprise. Sydney, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Hall, J., Matos, S., & Lorn, S. (2012). Entrepreneurship and innovation at the base of the pyramid: A recipe for inclusive growth or social exclusion? Journal of Management Studies, 49(4), 785-812.

Hoogendoorn, B., Pennings, E., & Thurik, A. R. (2010). What do we know about social entrepreneurship: An analysis of empirical research. ERIM Report Series: Research in Management. Rotterdam, NL: RSM Erasmus University.

Jensen, 0. (2010). Social mediation in remote developing world tourism locations—The significance of social ties between local guides and host communities in sustainable tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(5), 615-633.

Jeyaraj, A., Rottman, J. W., & Lacity, M. C. (2006). A review of the predictors, linkages, and biases in IT innovation adoption research. Journal of Information Technology, 21(1), 1-23.

Kiss, A. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5), 232-237.

Lupton, R. D. (2011). Toxic charity: How the church hurts those they help and how to reverse it. New York: HarperOne.

Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36-44.

Phillips, W., Lee, H., & Ghobadian, A. (2015). Social innovation and social entrepreneurship: A systematic review. Group and Organization Management, 40, 271-294.

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Richter, L. M., & Norman, A. (2010). AIDS orphan tourism: A threat to young children in residential care. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies: An International Interdisciplinary Journal for Research, Policy and Care, 5(3), 217-229.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Salazar, N. B. (2012). Community-based cultural tourism: Issues, threats and opportunities.

Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(1), 19-22.

Schellhorn, M. (2010). Development for whom? Social justice and the business of ecotourism.

Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(1), 115-135.

Short, J. C., Moss, T. W., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(2), 161-194. Simpson, A. V. (2014). Augmenting the limitations of organizational compassion with wisdom and power: Insights from Bhutan. ANZAM Conference, Sydney, NSW.

Stake, R. (2000). Cases studies. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 435-454). London: Sage Publications.

Teo, A., & Patterson, C. (2005). Saving paradise: The story of Sukau Rainforest Lodge. Kota Kinabalu: Sabah Handicraft Centre.

Yin, R. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Jamie Murphy is Professor and Research Director at the Australian School of Management. His background includes; European marketing manager for PowerBar and Greg Lemond Bicycles, and lead academic for the Google Online Marketing Challenge. His Ph.D. is from Florida State University, and his industry and academic experience spans continents and includes hundreds of academic publications and presentations, as well as many New York Times and Wall Street Journal stories. His research focus is on the effective use of the Internet for citizens, businesses and governments, particularly Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), and sustainability (particularly energy, transportation and recycling).

Albert Teo graduated in Economics (Honors) from the University of London in 1977. He operates multi-award winning Borneo Eco Tours and the Sukau Rainforest Lodge, which became a charter member of National Geographic Unique Lodges of the World in 2015 (www.sukau.com). In 2013 his foundation Borneo Ecotourism Solutions and Technologies, or BEST Society (www. bestsociety.org) received the UNWTO Ulysses Award for excellence and innovation in tourism. In October 2006, Albert was appointed Adjunct Lecturer by Edith Cowan University, Australia. In 2012, he was conferred a Fellow of Edith Cowan University. He is now an Adjunct Professor of University Malaysia Sabah.

Casey Murphy is completing her Master of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame Australia, and is an Adjunct Research Associate with the Australian School of Management. She graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Environmental Science and Geography from the University of Notre Dame Australia in 2009. She has a passion for teaching and educating guests about the history and the environment. She has taught children in an outdoor learning environment in the USA and volunteered for six months at Borneo Eco tours. Currently she works as a tour guide in Perth and Rottnest Island. Her research focus includes outdoor/environmental education for children, ecotourism and sustainability.

Eunice Liu is the Dean and Director of Business and Leadership Faculty with responsibility for establishing the Australian School of Management as a leading private higher education provider. As an accomplished industry practitioner, Eunice has a wealth of international industry experience in management, knowledge management, leadership, change management, new business development, sales, marketing, strategic management and project management ranging from hospitality, government to commerce industries. Her passion is learning and teaching and scholarly activity through research and journal papers. Eunice’s research interests include: leadership, knowledge management, strategic management, innovation, entrepreneurship, intrapreneurship, sustainability, cross-cultural management and change management.

 
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