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Conclusion

There is evidence supporting the fact that microfinancial services can promote food security and income and consumption smoothing for vulnerable households (Zeller and Sharma 2000; Olivares and Santos 2009; Ahlin et al. 2009). Although there seem to be problems that cannot be ironed out just by providing access to these services as vulnerable householders are subjected to immense social and financial pressures. However, there are mechanisms supporting vulnerable groups to be more empowered and enabling capacity build to overcome income and consumption shocks and thus reducing vulnerability.

It is worthy of future research to consider the social stigma that affects food security risk and the stresses undertaken by these vulnerable groups in accessing financial services and to observe whether these stigmas and risks vary between the urban and rural spheres where these vulnerable groups exist, for example vulnerable groups within urban slums.

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