Desktop version

Home arrow Marketing arrow Food Security and Sustainability: Investment and Financing along Agro-Food Chains



There is evidence supporting the fact that microfinancial services can promote food security and income and consumption smoothing for vulnerable households (Zeller and Sharma 2000; Olivares and Santos 2009; Ahlin et al. 2009). Although there seem to be problems that cannot be ironed out just by providing access to these services as vulnerable householders are subjected to immense social and financial pressures. However, there are mechanisms supporting vulnerable groups to be more empowered and enabling capacity build to overcome income and consumption shocks and thus reducing vulnerability.

It is worthy of future research to consider the social stigma that affects food security risk and the stresses undertaken by these vulnerable groups in accessing financial services and to observe whether these stigmas and risks vary between the urban and rural spheres where these vulnerable groups exist, for example vulnerable groups within urban slums.


Adams, D., & Von Pischke, J. D. (1992). Micro-enterprise credit programs: De'ja' vu. World Development, 20(10), 1463—1470.

Ahlin, C., Lin, J., & Maio, M. (2009). Where does microfinance flourish? Microfinance institution performance in macroeconomic context. Journal of Development Economics, 95(2), 105—120.

Bateman, M. (2010). Why doesn’t microfinance work? The destructive rise oflocal neoliberalism. New York: Zed Books.

Bateman, M., & Chang, H. (2012). Microfinance and the illusion of development: From Hubris to Nemesis in thirty years. World Economic Review, 1, 13-36.

Beall, J. (2002). Globalisation and social exclusion in cities: Framingthe debate with lessons from Africa and Asia (DESTIN Working Paper Series 02—27). London: London School of Economics.

Beck, U. (1992). Risk Society-towards a new modernity. London: Sage.

Beck, U. (2009). Worldat risk. Cambridge: Polity.

Behrman, J. R. (1988a). Nutrition, health, birth order and seasonality: Intrahousehold allocation among Children in Rural India. Journal of Development Economics, 28, 43-62.

Behrman, J. R. (1988b). Intra-household allocation of nutrients in Rural India: Are boys favoured? Do parents exhibit inequality aversion. Oxford Economic Papers, 40, 32—54.

Behrman, J., & Deolalikar, A. (1990). The intra-household demand for nutrients in Rural South India: Individual estimates, fixed effects and permanent income. The Journal of Human Resources, 25(4), 665—696.

Bond, P., & Rai. A. (2002). Collateral Substitutes for Microfinance. http:// Development/rai-021104.pdf; accessed October 2016.

Brown, L. D., & Ashman, D. (1996). Participation, social capital and intersectoral problem solving: African and Asian cases. World Development, 24(9), 1467-1479.

Copestake, J. (2002). Inequality and the polarizing impact of microcredit: Evidence from Zambia’s Copperbelt. Journal of International Development, 14(6), 743-755.

Copestake, J., Bhalotra, S., & Johnson, S. (2001). Assessing the impact of microcredit: A Zambian case study. The Journal of Development Studies, 37(4), 81-100.

Counts, A. (1997). Voices from the Field: Interviews with Microcredit Practioners for The Poor.Cashpor/Grameen Bank Publications

David, C., & Meyer, W. (1980). Measuring the farm level impact of agricultural loans in low income countries: A review article. In J. Howell (Ed.), Borrowers and lenders: Rural financial markets and institutions in developing countries. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Deaton, A. S. (1992). Understandingconsumption. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Demirguc-Kunt, A., Klapper, L., Singer, D., & Van Oudheusden, P. (2015). The Global Findex Database 2014: Measuring Financial Inclusion around the World (Policy Research Working Paper 7255). Washington, DC: World Bank.

Dercon, S., & Krishnan, P. (2000). In sickness and in health: Risk-sharing within households in rural Ethiopia. Journal of Political Economy, 108, 688-727.

Devereux, S. (2002). State ofdisaster: Causes, consequences andpolicy lessonsfrom Malawi. Lilongwe: ActionAid Malawi.

Diagne, A., Zeller, M., & Sharma, M. (1998). Determinants of household access to and participation in formal and informal credit markets in Malawi and Bangladesh. A paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Economics Association, Chicago, IL, January 3-5.

Dichter, T. (2007). The chicken and egg dilemma in microfinance: An historical analysis of the sequence of growth and credit in the economic development of the North. In T. Dichter & M. Harper (Eds.), What’s wrong with microfinance? (pp. 179—192). Rugby: Practical Action Publishing.

Downing, T. E. (1992). Climatechangeandvulnerableplaces: Globalfoodsecurity and country studies in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Senegal and Chile (Research Report No 1). Oxford: Environmental Change Unit, University of Oxford.

Dreze, J., & Sen, A. K. (1989). Entitlement and deprivation. InHunger and public action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dreze, J., & Sen, A. K. (Eds.) (1990). The political economy of hunger. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Feder, G., Just, R. E., & Zilberman, D. (1985). Adoption of agricultural innovations in developing countries: A survey. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 33, 255-297.

Folbre, N. (1986). Hearts and spades: Paradigms of household economics. World Development, 14(2), 245-255.

Fosu, A. K. (2010). Inequality, income, and poverty: Comparative global evidence. Social Science Quarterly, 91(5), 1432-1446.

Grootaert, C. (1998). Social capital, household welfare, andpoverty in Indonesia. Mimeograph. Social Development Department, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, The World Bank. September 1998.

Guyer, J. I., & Peters, P. E. (1987). “Introduction” to: Conceptualizing the household: Issues of theory and policy in Africa. Development and Change, 18(2), 197-213.

HLPE. (2013). Investing in smallholder agricultureforfoodsecurity. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome: High Level Panel ofExperts.

Holmes, R., & Jones, N. (2009). Putting the social back into social protection: A framework for understanding the linkages between economic and social risks for poverty reduction. London: Overseas Development Institute Background Note.

IFAD (2011). Rural Poverty Report 2011: New realities, new challenges, new opportunities for tomorrow’s generation. Rome: International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, and achievements: Reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment. Development and Change, 30, 435-464.

Kabeer, N. (2001). Resources, agency, achievement: Reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment. In B. Severfjord, et al. (Ed.), Discussing women’s empowerment-theory and practice (No. 3). SIDA Study.

Kondo, T. (2007). Impact ofmicrofinance on rural households in the Philippines: A case study from the special evaluation study on the effects ofmicrofinance operations on poor households and the status of women. Manila: Asian Development Bank.

Kurzban, R., & Leary, M. R. (2001). Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 187—208.

Lacalle-Caldero'n, M., & Rico-Garrido, S. (2006). Los microcre'ditos: una oportunidad de inclusio'n laboral. Finance and the Common Good, 25, 94—100.

Linnerooth-Bayer, J., & Mechler, R. (2009) Insurance against Losses from Natural Disasters in Developing Countries. DESA Working Paper No. 85 ST/ESA/2009/DWP/85 [online]. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. Available at: papers/2009/wp85_2009.pdf

Lenoir, R. (1974/1989). LesExclus: UnFrancaissurDix (2nd ed.). Paris: Editions du Seuil.

Levitas, R. (1996). The concept of social exclusion and the new “Durkheimian” hegemony. Critical Social Policy, 46, 5—20.

Levitas, R. (2000). What is social exclusion? In D. Gordon & P. Townsend (Eds.), Breadline Europe: The measurement of poverty. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Levitas, R. (2005). The inclusive society: Social exclusion and New Labour (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Levitas, R., Pantazis, C., Fahmy, E., Gordon, D., Lloyd, E., & Patsios, D. (2007). The multi-dimensional analysis of social exclusion. Bristol Institute for Public Affairs, University of Bristol.

Liversage, H. (2010). Responding to ‘land grabbing’ and promoting responsible investment in Agriculture (IFAD Occasional Paper, No 2).

Maxwell, D. (1995). Land, labor,food, andfarming:A householdanalysisofurban agriculture in Kampala, Uganda. Ph.D. dissertation. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Madison.

Morduch, J. (1994). Poverty and vulnerability. American Economic Review (AEA Papers and Proceedings), 84, 221—225.

Morduch, J. (1999). Between the market and state: Can informal insurance patch the safety net? World Bank Research Observer, 14, 187—207.

Morduch, J. (2004). Consumption smoothing across space: Testing theories of risk-sharing in the ICRISAT study region of South India. In S. Dercon (Ed.), Insurance against poverty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Morduch, J. (2006). Micro-insurance: The next revolution? What have we learned about poverty? In A. Banerjee, R. Benabou, & D. Mookherjee (Eds.), Understanding poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mulder-Sibanda, M., Sibanda-Mulder, F. S., d’Alois, L., & Verna, D. (2002). Malnutrition in food-surplus areas: Experience from nutritional surveillance for decentralized planning in Haiti. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 23, 253—261.

Navare, J., & Handley-Schacler, M. (2016). Financial aggregation of risks for MSMEs in developing economies: A conceptual framework of financial aggregation and microinsurance effects. Working paper for submission, ESRC Seminar series Small Business Social Responsibility: Global Perspectives.

Olivares, M., & Santos, S. (2009). Market solutions in poverty: The role of microcredit in development countries with financial restrictions. (School of Economics and Management, Technical University of Lisbon working paper ISSN N° 0874-4548).

Pitt, M. M, Rosenzweig, M. R, and. Hassan, M. N (1990). Productivity, health, and inequality in the intrahousehold distribution of food in low income countries. The American Economic Review, 80 5, 1139—1156.

Pitt, M. M., Khandker, S. R., Choudhury, O. H., & Millimet, D. L. (2003). Credit programs for the poor and the health status of children in rural Bangladesh. International Economic Review, 44, 87—118.

Robinson, M. S. (2001). The microfinance revolution: Sustainable finance for the poor. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Rogaly, B. (1996). Microfinance evangelism, destitute women and the hard selling of a new anti-poverty formula. Development in Practice, 6(2), 100—112.

Rome Declaration. (1996). United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation.; accessed 5th April 2016.

Rosenzweig, M., & Binswanger, H. (1993). Wealth, weather risk and the composition and profitability of agricultural investments. Economic Journal, 103, 56-78.

Rosenzweig, M. R., & Wolpin, K. I. (1988). Heterogeneity, intrafamily distribution, and child health. The Journal of Human Resources, 23(4), 437-461.

Rutherford, S (1998). The savings of the poor: improving financial services in Bangladesh; Journal of International Development Vol 10:1 ; 1-15

Schultz, T. W. (1961). Investment in human capital. The American Economic Review, 51(1), 1-17.

Scully, N. D. (2004). Micro-creditnopanaceaforpoorwomen. Development Gap Organization, March 19.

Sen, A. K. (1981). Poverty andfamines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon.

Sen, A. K. (1985). Commodities and capabilities. Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Sen, A. K. (1986). Social Choice Theory. In: K. J. Arrow and M. Intriligator, Handbook of Mathematical Economics, Vol. III. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Sen, A. K. (1992). Inequality re-examined. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sen, A. K. (1993). Capability and well-being. In M. C. Nussbaum & A. K. Sen (Eds.), The quality of life (pp. 30—53). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sen, A. K. (1995). Rationality and Social Choice. American Economic Review.

Sen, A. K. (1998). The possibility of social choice. American Economic Review, 89(3), 349-378.

Sen, A. K. (1999). Developmentasfreedom. Oxford: Oxford University.

Siebel H. (2005). Does history matter? The Old and the New World of Microfinance in Europe and Asia presented at: From moneylenders to microfinance: Southeast Asia’s credit revolution in institutional, economic and cultural perspective An interdisciplinary workshop Asia Research Institute, Department of Economics, and Department of Sociology National University of Singapore 7-8 October 2005.

Simanowitz, A. (2001). From event to process: current trends in microinance impact assessment. Small Enterprise Development, 12(4), 11-21.

Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance ofAfrican Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797-811.

Stiglitz, J.E. (1990). Peer monitoring and credit markets, World Bank Economic Review, 4(2): 351-366

Stiglitz, J., Sen, A., & Fitoussi, J.-P. (2009). Report by the Commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. Technical Report. Paris.

Thomas, D. (1990). Intra-household resource allocation: An inferential approach. Journal of Human Resources, 25, 635-664.

Thomas, D. (1991). Gender differences in household resource allocation (LSMS Working Paper No. 79.). Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Tickner, J. A. (1996). International relations: Post-positivist and feminist perspectives. In R. E. Goodin & H.-d. Klingemann (Eds.), A new handbook of political science. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tickner, V., Kosal, R., & Savora, T. (1995). An introduction to the food system in Cambodia and related food security considerations, mimeo. Phnom Penh: CDRI.

Townsend, P. (1979). Povertyin the UnitedKingdom. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Tseng, C. C. (2011). MicrofinanceandAmartyaSens CapabilityApproach. Ph.D thesis. University of Birmingham.

Varian H.R (1990). Goodness-of-fit in optimizing models. Journal of Econometrics, 46:125—140,

Valenzuela, L (1998). Overview on microfinance fraud. Churchill ed., Moving Microfinance Forward.

Van Eijkel, R., Hermes, C. L. M., & Lensink, B. W. (2007). Group Lending and the Role of the Group Leader: Theory and Evidence from Eritrea. University of Groningen.

Wydick, B. (1996). CreditAccessforHouseholdEnterprisesinDevelopingCountries under Asymmetric Information, Ph.D. Dissertation, U.C.Berkeley.

Yaqub, S. (2000). Intertemporal welfare dynamics: Extent and causes (Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper 70). New York: UNDP, http://

Yodmani, S. (2001). Disaster risk management and vulnerability reduction: Protecting the poor. The Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty. Asian Development Bank

Yunus, M. (1999). Banker to thepoor: Micro-lendingand the battle against world poverty. New York: Public Affairs.

Zeller M (1999). The role ofmicro-financefor income and consumption smoothing. International Food Policy Research Institute; Organized by the Poverty and Inequality Advisory Unit of the Sustainable Development Department Washington, DC (Feb 1999).

Zeller, M., & Sharma, M. (1998). Rural finance and poverty alleviation (Food Policy Report). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Zeller, M., & Sharma, M. (2000). Many borrow, more save and all insure: Implications for food and microfinance policy. Food Policy, 25(2), 143—167.

Zeller, M., G. Schrieder, J. von Braun, & Heidhues, F, (1997). Rural finance for food security of the poor: Implications for research and policy (Food Policy Review No. 4). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

Zeller, M., Diagne, A., & Mataya, C. (1998). Market access by smallholder farmers in Malawi: Implications for technology adoption, agricultural productivity and crop income. Agricultural Economics, 19, 219—229.

Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >