Guidelines for Sustainable Tower Architectural Design
Because of their large scale, tall buildings have greater exposure than other types of buildings to the full impact of the external environmental conditions including air temperatures, humidity, wind, and solar radiation. Also, tall buildings have greater contribution than other forms of buildings to the forming of heat island effect generated in urban environments.
Building operational systems can be categorized by their functions and their relation and impact on natural resources (such as energy and water). Yeang (1999) categorized the building operational systems into the following categories:
- 1. Passive-Mode Systems,
- 2. Mixed-Mode Systems,
- 3. Full-Mode Systems (active systems),
- 4. Water Conservation Strategy,
- 5. Wastewater and Sewage Recycling Systems, and
- 6. Productive Mode Systems.
To create green or environmentally sustainable tall buildings, Yeang (1999) recommended maximizing reliance on passive-mode systems while minimizing reliance on full-mode (or active systems). This could be achieved through appropriate design of the built-form configuration, site layout, fa?ade design, solar-control devices, passive daylight devices, envelope materials, vertical landscaping, and passive cooling.