Home Engineering Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies
Statistics on the National vs Regional Level
The energy use (excluding facility electricity) was during 2006 and 2007 for the nation 154 kWh/(m2 year) and for Gavleborg 164 kWh/(m2 year), not normalized for weather (SCB 2009). These two figures were one of the reasons for starting this
Fig. 8.2 To the left: number of multifamily buildings distributed according to the year of erection. To the right: specific energy use [kWh/(m2 year)] by year of erection for Gavleborg and Sweden
project. When investigating newer statistics from various sources, contradictory information was found, especially when comparing results from the National Statistics Bureau and the EPC register Gripen. For the year 2011, the national normalized value was 151 kWh/(m2 year) (SEA 2012) whereas the database Gripen indicates that Gavleborg on an average has a lower specific energy use for multifamily buildings, namely 145 kWh/(m2 year). Figure 8.2 shows information on Gavleborgs multifamily building stock concerning when buildings were erected and how the distribution of specific energy use looks.
The statistics indicate the following:
Some statics that is not shown in Fig. 8.2 are:
An interesting aspect is that buildings erected before the 1970s on an average have better energy performance than those of the 1970s. A reason may be that it is the buildings of the 1970s that soon require major renovation (every 40th year) whereas older building to a larger extent have been retrofitted. Another interesting fact is that energy requirement in building regulation became more strict after the oil crisis in 1973, already introduced in late 70s. Since then, energy use has decreased except during the 90s, showing that legislature did not work well. Building codes allowed a new multifamily building (not heated by electricity) in 2014 to have a maximum energy use of 110 kWh/(m2 year).
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