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Home arrow Engineering arrow Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies

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Statistics on the National vs Regional Level

The energy use (excluding facility electricity) was during 2006 and 2007 for the nation 154 kWh/(m2 year) and for Gavleborg 164 kWh/(m2 year), not normalized for weather (SCB 2009). These two figures were one of the reasons for starting this

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Fig. 8.2 To the left: number of multifamily buildings distributed according to the year of erection. To the right: specific energy use [kWh/(m2 year)] by year of erection for Gavleborg and Sweden

project. When investigating newer statistics from various sources, contradictory information was found, especially when comparing results from the National Statistics Bureau and the EPC register Gripen. For the year 2011, the national normalized value was 151 kWh/(m2 year) (SEA 2012) whereas the database Gripen indicates that Gavleborg on an average has a lower specific energy use for multifamily buildings, namely 145 kWh/(m2 year). Figure 8.2 shows information on Gavleborgs multifamily building stock concerning when buildings were erected and how the distribution of specific energy use looks.

The statistics indicate the following:

  • • 20 % of Gavleborgs buildings were erected before 1941 and more that 65 % are older than 40 years.
  • • By October 2012 there are 1903 EPCs in the region, corresponding to 2 149 430 m2. The average building has a heated floor area 1129 m2.
  • • Buildings from 1971 to 1980 have the highest energy use and the lowest is found in new buildings (2001 and onward). Also buildings erected during the years 1981-1990 show better performance than buildings from the period 1991-2000.
  • • There were few multifamily buildings erected during the 1970s and has remained low since the 1990s.

Some statics that is not shown in Fig. 8.2 are:

  • • The oldest buildings have the lowest share of district heating whilst newest buildings have the highest.
  • • Of the 2 % of the buildings that are heated with oil, more than half of these are built before 1941. Only 4 % of the buildings have resistive electric heating and 6 % use ground source heat pumps.

An interesting aspect is that buildings erected before the 1970s on an average have better energy performance than those of the 1970s. A reason may be that it is the buildings of the 1970s that soon require major renovation (every 40th year) whereas older building to a larger extent have been retrofitted. Another interesting fact is that energy requirement in building regulation became more strict after the oil crisis in 1973, already introduced in late 70s. Since then, energy use has decreased except during the 90s, showing that legislature did not work well. Building codes allowed a new multifamily building (not heated by electricity) in 2014 to have a maximum energy use of 110 kWh/(m2 year).

 
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