Home Engineering Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies
Influence of Individual EMCs
Results for individual measures in terms of reduction of energy use in comparison with today’s consumption are displayed in Table 8.3. In some cases, values are not presented since practical implementation of the ECM is not possible. For example, building No. 5 is a historical building for which external wall insulation is not allowed and there is no space for additional insulation in the attic of building No. 10. Results on other types and combination of measures can be found in (Akander et al. 2012).
HVAC retrofitting and improvements, with exception of ventilation systems (HRX), generally indicate that those measures are more profitable than measures on constructions. Controls systems and optimization and/or adjustment and tuning of heating system are profitable. However, the economic measures do not individually give substantial energy savings; these give savings ranging between 2 and 9 % with exception of PVs combined with electric heating (resistive and HP) that give higher savings. For the electric heated buildings, air to air heat pump solution shows large savings which are economical. Aside from these ECMs, most figures are in the whereabouts of savings due to reduction of the indoor temperature with 1 °C, which yields 5-7 %.
Worth mentioning is the impact of HRX that may give savings up to about 30 % but also none at all (1 %). There are three reasons for this result. On the one hand, a leaky envelope depletes savings since uncontrolled air leakage passes through the building without heat recovery. On the other, the ventilation rate has to be increased in most buildings, since these have insufficient rates in comparison to regulations, which correspond to approximately 0.5 ACH. The third aspect is that the fans and controls of the HRX system require electricity, thus increasing electricity consumption.
Table 8.3 For each house (number in the top row as listed in Table 8.1. accompanied with heating type), the impact of individual ECMs is expressed as savings (%) in the left column and the profitability for individual measures (N = No in italics. Y = Yes in bold) in the right column
A dash means that practical implementation is not possible. The upper part of the table has construction measures and the lower on building services and controls
Table 8.4 Today’s energy use of each building and the savings that the packages have in terms of simulated energy use and saving in comparison to today’s values
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