Home Engineering Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies
The first stage in assessing transportation is to determine the street sections and their traffic properties service volume, speed, density, and different flow conditions according to Box 9.7. The near capacity values (highlighted in red) are used to estimate the maximum condition so to assess the maximum CO2 emissions. Also, street sections and their properties are shown in Fig. 9.43.
Upon determining street sections and their traffic properties, the types of vehicles and their CO2 emissions per kilometre should be determined. Figure 9.44 shows that all the vehicles and their CO2 emissions, the types of vehicles in the surrounding streets in our case study are vehicles, buses, and motorbikes.
Traffic Flow Simulation
The basic data required to give us an overview of the streets and their traffic properties and types of vehicle and their CO2 emissions acquired. This data will be used as input for traffic flow simulation using the software “AIMSUM” which has the ability to determine the flow of traffic, CO2 emissions, speed, delay time, and density of flow in addition to the surrounding streets’ layout and the presence of the case study in that location. The street layout with colour coding shows the density of the traffic flow in each road as shown in Fig. 9.45. It indicates red colour to represent the highest density while the green presents the lowest density and good traffic flow. The
Box 9.7 Traffic properties
Fig. 9.43 Streets’ sections and traffic properties
Fig. 9.44 Vehicles’ CO2 emissions per kilometre
Fig. 9.45 Traffic flow density in the surrounding streets Image credit: Author
Box 9.8 Traffic simulation results at maximum roads capacity
Box 9.9 CO2 emissions associated with transport
results of the simulation are in Box 9.8. It shows that delay time in the trips in surrounding streets is 76.69 s/km at maximum street capacity and density of 35.19 Vehicle/km and flow of 23,435 Vehicle/h.
The main focus here will be on the total distance travelled by all vehicles throughout the streets surrounding our case study which is equal to 23,299 km. The total distance travelled then used as input of “GHG emission calculation tool version 2.6”, which is a tool designed to estimated CO2 emission according to vehicle types and distance travelled (Fuglestvedt et al. 2007). It was found that the emissions resulting from cars was 5.287 tCO2 while for buses 1.25 tCO2, the total of all emissions was 6.538 tCO2 as shown in Box 9.9.
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