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Cognitive enhancement : ethical and policy implications in international perspectives


Conceptual ImplicationsInternational PerspectivesLaw and Policy OptionsConcluding RemarksAcknowledgmentsCONCEPTUAL IMPLICATIONSToward a More Banal NeuroethicsAmbivalence and Cognitive DissonanceThe Way ForwardConclusionReferencesWhy Less Praise for Enhanced Performance?IntroductionLPI and the Negative View of Enhancement: Empirical DataTheoretical Justifications for LPIRESPONSIBILITY-SHIFTINGAUTHENTICITYCHEATINGSUMMARYA New Justification for LPITHE POINT OF ACTIVITIESCHANGING THE NATURE OF AN ACTIVITYCOARSE-GRAINED AND FINE-GRAINED DESCRIPTIONS OF ACTIVITIESLPI REVISITEDLPI, Our Nature-of-Activities Justification, and the Enhancement DebateNotesReferencesMoral Enhancement, Neuroessentialism, and Moral ContentIntroductionNeuroessentialist Premises in the Moral Enhancement DiscourseDEFINITIONSCRITIQUE OF NEUROESSENTIALISMMoral Neutrality, Practical Rationalities and Social PracticesMoral Enhancement as Neurotechnological Gourmandize?NotesReferencesCognitive/Neuroenhancement Through an Ability Studies LensIntroductionFrom Disability Studies to Ability StudiesAbility Expectation Narratives: The Example of BMI/BCIDATA SOURCESSEARCH STRATEGYCODING AND ANALYSISLIMITATIONSRESULTSDiscussionSome Other Ability Expectations-Related QuestionsAnticipatory Governance and Ability Expectation GovernanceConclusionNoteReferencesDefining Contexts of Neurocognitive (Performance) EnhancementsSituating NeuroethicsEnhancement StandardsEnhancing Cognition in ContextEnhancement in Public ContextsPositional PerspectivesPolicy Priorities and the Role of NeuroethicsAcknowledgmentsReferencesINTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES Cognitive EnhancementA South African PerspectiveConceptual FrameworkCognitive Enhancement in an Unequal SocietyControversies About Well-BeingIntegrating Neuroscience and Global Mental HealthConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesCognitive Enhancement. A Confucian Perspective from TaiwanIntroductionDiscourses on Cognitive Enhancement: Pros and ConsFREEDOM, AUTONOMY, AUTHENTICITY, AND HYPERAGENCYFAIRNESS AND SOCIAL JUSTICEHUMAN NATUREDiscourses on Cognitive Enhancement: Asian and Confucian PerspectivesA Confucian Discourse for Cognitive Enhancement as Part of Moral Self-CultivationPubLic Attitudes Toward Cognitive Enhancement in TaiwanConclusionNotesReferencesEnhancing Cognition in the "Brain Nation". An Israeli PerspectiveIntroductionIsrael as the "Brain-Nation"The State of Israeli NeuroethicsTranscranial Magnetic StimulationNeuronix and BrainswayTMS as a Form of Cognitive EnhancementEthics DiscussionENHANCEMENT VERSUS TREATMENTRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTNEUROCITIZENSHIPTHE ETHICS OF MEMORYTIKKUN OLAMConclusionNotesReferencesCognitive Enhancement Down-Under. An Australian PerspectiveCognitive Enhancement in AustraliaBursting the Cognitive Enhancement Bubble from Down-UnderLEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS RELATING TO THE USE OF PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES IN AUSTRALIASTIMULANT PRESCRIBING IN AUSTRALIAPREVALENCE OF COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT AMONG THE AUSTRALIAN GENERAL PUBLICCOGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS"She'Ll Be Right, Mate": Australian Cultural Values and Cognitive EnhancementWHERE TO NEXT FOR AUSTRALIA?ReferencesCognitive Enhancement in Germany. Prevalence, Attitudes, Moral Acceptability, Terms, Legal Status, and the Ethics DebateIntroductionThe Terms and Frameworks Used to Describe CE Drug UseLegal Status of Potential CE SubstancesPrevalence of CE Drug UsePREVALENCE IN THE GENERAL PUBLICPREVALENCE AMONG (UNIVERSITY) STUDENTS AND PUPILSPREVALENCE AMONG OTHER SPECIFIC POPULATIONSMoral Acceptability and Attitudes Regarding CE DrugsScholarly Discussion About Ethics of CEDESIRED EFFECTS, SIDE EFFECTS, AND NEGATIVE HEALTH CONSEQUENCESCHANGING PERSONALITY AND ERODING VIRTUESFREE DECISION-MAKINGFAIRNESS, COERCION, AND INEQUALITYENHANCING CHILDRENTHE ROLE OF PHYSICIANSChallenges and TasksPOTENTIAL TASKS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCHPOTENTIAL TASKS FOR LAB RESEARCHCHALLENGES FOR POLITICAL REGULATION AND THE ETHICAL DEBATEConclusionAcknowledgmentsNotesReferencesCognitive Enhancement in the Netherlands. Practices, Public Opinion, and EthicsIntroductionPrevalence of the Use of "Cognition Enhancers" in the NetherlandsUNIVERSITY STUDENTSPSYCHIATRISTSCONCLUSIONSViews on Cognitive Enhancement in the NetherlandsGENERAL PUBLICSTUDENTSPHYSICIANSCONCLUSIONSPublic Discussion on Enhancement, "Malleability," and Rising Use of RitalinMEDIADiscussion and ConclusionNotesReferencesCognitive Enhancement in Canada. An Overview of Conceptual and Contextual Aspects, Policy Discussions, and Academic ResearchConceptual and Contextual Aspects of Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs for CE in CanadaCONCEPTUAL ASPECTSCONTEXTUAL ASPECTSPolicy Discussions and Responses to the Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs for EnhancementAcademic Work on the Nonmedical. Use of Prescription Drugs for CE Conducted in Canada or About the Canadian ContextEMPIRICAL STUDIESCONCEPTUAL WORK ABOUT CEDELIBERATION AND WORKSHOP RECOMMENDATIONSConclusionNotesReferencesCognitive Enhancement and the Leveling of the Playing Field. The Case of Latin AmericaIntroductionCE in Latin AmericaEgalitarian Principles of Justice and EnhancementCE and Equality of OpportunityUnfairness, Coercion, and Health RisksAcknowledgmentsNotesReferencesLAW AND POLICY OPTIONS Regulating Cognitive Enhancement Technologies. Policy Options and ProblemsIntroductionEthical PerspectivesPolicy Issues in Cognitive EnhancementAssessing Enhancement TechniquesFraming Cognitive Enhancement PolicyConclusionReferencesEnhancing with ModafinilWhat Is Modafinil?Physiological Aspects of Modafinil UseSocial Aspects of Modafinil UseRegulatory Aspects and Public Policy on Modafinil UseConclusionNotesReferencesToward an Ethical Framework for Regulating the Market for Cognitive Enhancement DevicesIntroductionWhat Is the Correct Regulatory Approach for CEDs?ARE CEDS DIFFERENT IN KIND FROM COMPARABLE MEDICAL DEVICES?Mechanisms and StructurePurposeAN ARGUMENT FOR REGULATING MEDICAL AND CONSUMER DEVICES DIFFERENTLYRelative Level of RiskThe Risk Is to the BrainHow Stringently Should CEDs Be Regulated?NEED AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR ACCEPTABLE RISKHOW SHOULD THE BENEFITS OF CEDS BE ASSESSED?CondusionNotesReferencesA Constitutional Right to Use Thought-Enhancing TechnologyIntroductionConstitutional Freedom of Thought and the Right to Use Thought-Enhancing TechnologiesReconciling Individual Autonomy and Government Interests in Regulating Cognitive EnhancementConclusionNotesReferencesDrugs, Enhancements, and Rights. Ten Points for Lawmakers to ConsiderThe International Control Regime and Its ProblemsCURRENT CONTROVERSIES: WAR ON DRUGSFURTHER CRITICISMSCASE EXAMPLE: THE SWISS CUBE MODELHow the CE Debate May Change Drug DiscourseCOGNITIVE LIBERTY AND THE RIGHT TO TAKE DRUGSTHE RIGHT TO REFUSE ENHANCEMENT AND THE DOPING ANALOGYTen Points for Lawmakers to ConsiderBrief Assessment of Current and Proposed RegulationNotesReferencesCognitive Enhancement in the Courtroom. The Ethics of Pharmacological Enhancement of Judicial CognitionIntroductionWhat Cognitive Functions Should Be the Object of Efforts to Enhance Judicial Cognition?THE TASK OF JUDGINGENHANCING THE DETECTION OF DECEPTIONENHANCING SENTENCING DECISIONSIs There an Obligation to Enhance Judicial Cognition?ETHICAL CODES OF CONDUCT FOR JUDGESTHE JUDGE AS A “FIDUCIARY" IN DEMOCRATIC THEORYPRECEDENTS FOR THE IDEA OF AN OBLIGATION TO MAINTAIN OR ENHANCE COGNITIONConclusionNotesReferencesEpilogueA Feast of Thinking on the Naturalization of Enhancement NeurotechnologyAcknowledgmentsNote
 
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